Kasab should be sent to gallows: Rehman Malik

He said the Pakistani judicial commission looking into the terror attack would be coming to India soon and would positively impact the trial of those accused in the Mumbai terror attack.

"The judicial commission has a limited mandate. They'll be in India any time after we hear from the Indian side. They will submit the report after the visit which is going to give a positive impact to the judicial process (of 26/11)," Malik told reporters at the Shangri La Hotel.

Talks between Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Pakistan's Yousuf Raza Gilani were preceded by delegation level discussions between the two countries.

The judicial commission report, Malik said, would help plug the legal lacuna and move forward the trial of those accused in the Nov 26 Mumbai terror attack.

India had last week welcomed Pakistan's decision to send a judicial commission to interview witnesses connected with the 26/11 terror probe.

"We look forward to the visit of the judicial commission," Foreign Secretary Ranjan Mathai had told reporters Nov 5.

Pakistan's High Commissioner Shahid Malik has conveyed to Indian Home Minister P. Chidambaram that the Pakistani government would soon be sending the commission to take forward the process of bringing to justice the perpetrators and conspirators of the Mumbai carnage.

The commission is expected to record the statements of Mumbai Additional Chief Metropolitan Magistrate R.V. Sawant Waghule and investigating officer Ramesh Mahale, who had recorded the confessional statement of Ajmal Amir Kasab, convicted of the terror attack.

Islamabad has contended that the charges against seven LeT militants, including its 'operation commander' Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi, who are currently lodged in a Pakistani jail, were based on Kasab's statement and hence the magistrate and the investigating officer's statements were necessary to furnish before the anti-terror court.

At least 166 people were killed in the 26/11 attack by 10 Pakistan-based terrorists in Mumbai.

Ajmal Kasab

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Mohammed Ajmal Amir Kasab

Kasab in the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus during the 2008 Mumbai attacks
Born 13 September 1987 (1987-09-13) (age 24)[1]
Faridkot, Okara, Punjab, Pakistan
Motive Islamic terrorism
Conviction(s) Murder
Waging war on India
Possessing explosives
Penalty Death sentence
Status Incarcerated

Mohammed Ajmal Amir Kasab (Urdu: محمد اجمل امیر قصاب) is a Pakistani Islamic terrorist who was involved in the 2008 Mumbai attacks.[2][3] Kasab is the only attacker captured alive by police and is currently in Indian custody. The Government of Pakistan initially denied that Kasab was from Pakistan, but in January 2009, it officially[4] accepted that he was a Pakistani citizen. On 3 May 2010, an Indian court convicted him of murder, waging war on India, possessing explosives, and other charges.[5] On 6 May 2010, the same trial court sentenced him to death on four counts and to a life sentence on five other counts. Kasab has been sentenced to death for attacking Mumbai and killing 166 people on 26 November 2008 along with nine Pakistani terrorists. He was found guilty of 80 offenses, including waging war against the nation, which is punishable by the death penalty.[6] Kasab's death sentence was upheld by the Bombay High Court on 21 February 2011.[7]


[edit] Background

Kasab was born in Faridkot village in the Okara District of Punjab, Pakistan, to Amir Shahban Kasab and Noor Illahi.[8] His father is a dahi puri vendor[9][10] while his elder brother, Afzal, works as a labourer in Lahore.[10] His elder sister, Rukaiyya Husain, is married in the village.[10] A younger sister, Suraiyya, and brother, Munir, live in Faridkot with their parents.[10][11] The family belongs to the Qassab community.[8]

According to reports, the village of Faridkot is quite impoverished and isolated, despite being close to a larger town, Depalpur, Pakistan. On the side of a building, just outside Faridkot, graffiti in large lettering says, in Urdu, "Go for jihad. Go for jihad. Markaz Dawat ul-Irshad". 'Markaz Dawat ul-Irshad' is a parent organization of Lashkar-e-Taiba.[12]

[edit] Early life

Kasab briefly joined his brother in Lahore and then returned to Faridkot.[13][14]

He left home after a fight with his father in 2005.[10] He had asked for new clothes on Eid, but his father could not provide them, which made him angry.[15] He then became involved in petty crime with his friend Muzaffar Lal Khan, soon moving on to armed robbery.[13] On 21 December 2007, Eid al-Adha, they were in Rawalpindi trying to buy weapons when they encountered members of Jama'at-ud-Da'wah, the political wing of Lashkar-e-Taiba, distributing pamphlets. After a brief chat, they decided to sign up for training with the Lashkar-e-Taiba, ending up at their base camp, Markaz Taiba.

Initial reports offered a conflicting view of Kasab as fluent in English, and from a middle class background.[16] However, an interrogator and deputy commissioner of the Mumbai Police stated that he spoke rough Hindi and barely any English.[17]

Some sources said his father asked him to join Lashkar-e-Taiba so that he could use the money they gave him to run the family.[18][19] When asked about this, Kasab's father told reporters, "I don't sell my sons."[20]

Villagers of Okara claimed on camera that he was at their village six months before the Mumbai attack. They said that he asked his mother to bless him as he was going for Jihad, and claimed that he demonstrated his wrestling skills to a few village boys that day.[21]

[edit] Training

Ajmal Kasab is alleged to be among a group of 24 men[22] who received training in marine warfare at a remote camp in mountainous Muzaffarabad in Pakistan-administered Kashmir. Part of the training is reported to have taken place on the Mangla Dam reservoir.[23]

Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi, a senior commander of the Lashkar-e-Taiba, reportedly offered to pay his family Rs.150,000 for his participation in the attacks.[24] Another report said the 23-year-old was recruited from his home, in part, based on a pledge by recruiters to pay Rs.100,000 to his family when he became a martyr.[25] Other sources put the reward to US $4,000.[9]

[edit] Stages of training

This batch of 25 went through the following stages of training:

  • Psychological: Indoctrination to Islamist propaganda, including compiled footage of Indian atrocities in Jammu & Kashmir,[26][27] and imagery of atrocities suffered by Muslims in India, Chechnya, Palestine and across the globe.[28][29][30]
  • Basic Combat: Lashkar's basic combat training and terror methodology course, the Daura Aam.
  • Advanced Training: Selected to undergo advanced combat training at a camp near Mansehra, a course the organisation calls the Daura Khaas.[27] This includes advanced weapons and explosives training supervised by retired personnel of the Pakistan Army,[31] along with survival training and further indoctrination.
  • Commando Training: Finally, an even smaller group selected for specialized commando tactics training and marine navigation training given to the Fedayeen unit selected in order to target Mumbai.

From the batch of 25, 10 were handpicked for the Mumbai mission.[32] They also received training in swimming and sailing, besides the use of high-end weapons and explosives under the supervision of LeT commanders. According to a media report citing an unnamed former Defence Department Official of the US, the intelligence agencies of the US had determined that the former officers from Pakistan's Army and Inter-Services Intelligence agency assisted actively and continuously in training.[33] They were given blueprints of all the four targets – Taj Mahal Palace & Tower, Oberoi Trident hotel and Nariman House.

[edit] Involvement in 2008 Mumbai attacks

Kasab was captured on CCTV during his attacks at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus along with another terrorist, Ismail Khan. Kasab reportedly told the police that they wanted to replicate the Islamabad Marriott hotel attack, and reduce the Taj Hotel to rubble, replicating the 9/11 attacks in India.[2]

Kasab and his accomplice Abu Dera Ismail Khan, age 25, attacked the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) railway station. They then moved on to attack a police vehicle (a white Toyota Qualis) at Cama Hospital, in which senior Mumbai police officers (Maharashtra ATS Chief Hemant Karkare, encounter specialist Vijay Salaskar and Additional Commissioner of Mumbai Police Ashok Kamte) were traveling. After killing them in a gun battle and taking two constables hostage[citation needed] in the Qualis, Kasab and Ismail Khan drove towards Metro cinema. Kasab joked about the bulletproof vests worn by the police and killed one constable when his mobile phone rang. They fired some shots into a crowd gathered at Metro Cinema. They then drove towards Vidhan Bhavan where they fired a few more shots. Their vehicle had a tire puncture, so they stole a silver Škoda Laura and drove towards Girgaum Chowpatty.[citation needed]

Earlier, the D B Marg police had got a message from police control at about 10 pm, saying that two heavily armed men were at large after gunning down commuters at CST. 15 policemen from D B Marg were sent to Chowpatty where they set up a double barricade on Marine Drive armed with two self-loading rifles (SLRs), two revolvers and lathis (batons).[34]

The Škoda reached Chowpatty and halted 40 to 50 feet from the barricade. It then reversed and tried to make a U-turn. A shootout ensued and Ismail Khan was killed. Kasab lay motionless playing dead. Assistant sub-inspector Tukaram Omble, who was armed only with a lathi, was killed when the police charged the car.[34] Omble took five bullets, but held on to Kasab's weapon, enabling his colleagues to capture him alive.[35] A mob gathered and attacked the two terrorists. This incident was captured on video.[36]

Some reports said that Ajmal Kasab was shot and had bullet wounds in his hand or both hands.[37] There are other reports by doctors who treated him that he had no bullet wounds.[38]

While it is reported that he told the police that he was trained to "kill to the last breath",[39] when he was arrested, he pleaded with the medical staff: "I do not want to die. Put me on saline".[40] Later, after interrogation in the hospital by the police, he said: "Now, I do not want to live", requesting the interrogators to kill him for the safety of his family in Pakistan who could be killed or tortured for his surrender to Indian police. Fidayeen suicide squad terrorists are strictly instructed by Lashkar commanders not to be captured and interrogated, use aliases instead of their real names and hide their nationality.[41] He is also quoted as saying "I have done right, I have no regrets".[39] Reports also surfaced that the group planned to escape safely after the attack, ruling out this being a suicide mission.[42]

Kasab has told interrogators that right through the fighting, the Lashkar headquarters from Karachi, Pakistan, remained in touch with the group, calling their phones through a voice-over-internet service. Investigators have succeeded in reconstructing the group's journey through the Garmin GPS set that has been seized from him. The mail sent from a bogus group calling itself the Deccan Mujahideen claiming responsibility has been traced to a Russian proxy which was then traced back to Lahore with the help of the FBI. It was in fact the Lashkar-e-Taiba operating under an alternate name after being banned by U.S.[43][44]

[edit] Nationality

After the attacks, India asserted that Kasab was a Pakistani national based on his confession and evidence gathered from the information provided by him.[45] Several reporters visited Kasab's village and verified the facts provided by him.[46][47][48] Former Pakistan Prime Minister, Nawaz Sharif confirmed that Kasab was from Faridkot village in Pakistan, and criticized President Zardari for cordoning off the village and not allowing his parents to meet anyone.[49]

Investigative journalist Saeed Shah travelled to Kasab's village and produced national identity card numbers of his parents; soon after they themselves disappeared on the night of 3 December 2008.[50]

Also, the Mumbai Police said that much of the information that Kasab provided had proved to be accurate. He disclosed the location of a fishing trawler, MV Kuber, that the terrorists used to enter Mumbai's coastal waters. He also told investigators where they would find the ship captain's body, a satellite phone and a global-positioning device, which they did.[51]

Despite mounting evidence, Pakistani officials, including President Asif Ali Zardari, initially denied the assertion that Ajmal Kasab was Pakistani.[52][53] Pakistani government officials attempted to erase evidence that there was a Lashkar-e-Taiba office in Deepalpur. The office was hurriedly closed in the week of 7 December. Moreover, at Faridkot many residents and local plainclothes police appeared to be trying to cover up Kasab's connection with the village. The atmosphere turned hostile, and several reporters who went to Faridkot were roughed up.[54] In early December, dealing a major blow to Pakistan's claims, Kasab's father admitted in an interview that the captured terrorist was his son.[20]

In January 2009, Pakistan's national security advisor Mahmud Ali Durrani admitted to Kasab being a Pakistani citizen while speaking to the CNN-IBN news channel. The Pakistan Government then hastily acknowledged that Ajmal Kasab was a Pakistani, but also announced that Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gilani had fired Durrani for "failing to take Gilani and other stakeholders into confidence" before making this information public, and for "a lack of coordination on matters of national security."[55]

[edit] Police interrogation

[edit] Naming confusion

Ajmal Kasab was arrested in Mumbai. On 6 December 2008, the newspaper The Hindu reported that the police officers who interrogated him did not speak his language, Urdu, and misinterpreted his caste origin "kasai", meaning butcher, to be a surname, writing it as "Kasav".[56]

The Times of India reported a different version of the error. The Times said that the police officers correctly understood that Ajmal Kasab does not have a surname. In order to satisfy an administrative requirement that people have surnames, the officers 'used the "Indian way"' by asking Kasab for his father's profession, and decided to use this word, "butcher", or "Kasab" in Urdu, as his surname.[57][58]

Various officials made minor corrections they thought were needed to the Latin alphabet spelling. Eventually, native Hindi and Punjabi speaking police officers talked to Kasab and discovered the error.[56] The Hindu refers to him as either "Mohammad Ajmal Amir, son of Mohammad Amir Iman" or "Mohammad Ajmal Amir 'Kasab'".

List of various names used to refer to Kasab:

  • Ajmal Kasab [59]
  • Azam Amir Kasav[60]
  • Ajmal Qasab[61]
  • Ajmal Amir Kamal[62]
  • Ajmal Amir Kasab[63]
  • Azam Ameer Qasab[64]
  • Mohammad Ajmal Qasam[65]
  • Ajmal Mohammed Amir Kasab[66]
  • Mohammad Ajmal Amir Kasar[67]
  • Amjad Amir Kamaal[68]
  • Mohammed Ajmal Amir Qasab[69][70]

[edit] Confessions

Kasab was caught[2][71] at Girgaum Chowpatty Naka in Mumbai trying to escape in a car[72] and taken to the Nair hospital. According to preliminary investigations by intelligence agencies, Ajmal Kasab is from Faridkot in Pakistan[73][74] (near Deepalpur, not to be confused with other towns of the same name in Pakistan and India[75][76])[2] and had received arms training in Pakistan.[77] Ammunition, a satellite phone and a layout plan of Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus was recovered from him. He has provided many clues to the investigation agencies and has reportedly described how they arrived at Mumbai from Karachi via Porbandar. He has reportedly said that he and other terrorists had received revolvers, AK-47s, ammunition and dried fruit from their coordinator.[77] Kasab reportedly told the police that they wanted to replicate the Marriott hotel attack in Islamabad, and reduce the Taj Hotel to rubble, replicating the September 11 attacks in US.[77] Kasab also told Indian police that the terrorists targeted Nariman House, where the Chabad center was located, because it was frequented by Israelis, who were targeted to "avenge atrocities on Palestinians."[78][79][80]

Mumbai Joint Police Commissioner of Crime Rakesh Maria said, information came out from his interview with Kasab that he is from the Faridkot village in the Okara district of Pakistan's Punjab province. He is the son of Mohammed Amir Kasab.[81] Pakistani authorities repeatedly said there was no evidence of such a person in Pakistan. But reporters have visited the village near Deepalpur, in Okara district, and identified the parents as named by Mumbai police. Villagers have confirmed that he indeed lived there. On the night of 3 December 2008, the parents were whisked away by a bearded Mullah, and since then, there was evidence of a cover-up by plainclothes police. Villagers changed their stories, and reporters who visit there are now being roughed up.[12]

It is reported that Kasab told the police that he and his associate, Ismail Khan, were the ones who shot Anti-Terror Squad chief Hemant Karkare, encounter specialist Vijay Salaskar and Additional Commissioner Ashok Kamte. According to the police, Kasab entered the Taj posing as a student from Mauritius and had stored explosives in one of the hotel's rooms.[82]

In December 2009, Kasab retracted his confession in court, claiming he had come to Mumbai to act in Bollywood films and was arrested by the Mumbai police three days before the attacks.[83]

[edit] Confessions on video

He repeatedly asked the interrogators to turn the camera off and warned them he will not speak otherwise. Nonetheless the following confessions were caught on video:

Kasab told the interrogators "it [Jihad] is about killing and getting killed and becoming famous." "Come, kill and die after a killing spree. By this one will become famous and will also make Allah proud," when police asked him what he understood about jihad.[84]

According to the officer, Kasab spoke Pathani Hindi and told the police that he threw up the moment he saw all the blood and gore. "Kasab said that he could not bear the sight of dead bodies and after creating enough havoc wanted to go back to Pakistan," the officer said.[citation needed]

"We were told that our big brother India is so rich and we are dying of poverty and hunger. My father sells dahi wada on a stall in Lahore and we did not even get enough food to eat from his earnings. I was promised that once they knew that I was successful in my operation, they would give 1,50,000 (around US$ 3,352), to my family," said Qasab.[84]

He shocked police through his readiness to switch loyalties now that he was apprehended.[84] "If you give me regular meals and money I will do the same for you that I did for them," he said.[84]

"When we asked whether he knew any verses from the Quran that described jihad, Kasab said he did not," police said. "In fact he did not know much about Islam or its tenets," according to a police source.[84]

[edit] Other reports

In a press conference, the Mumbai city police commissioner said "The person we have caught alive is certainly a Pakistani. They were all trained by ex-army officers, some for a year, some for more than a year".[85] On 23 November they set sail from Karachi unarmed to be picked up by a larger vessel. They hijacked the Indian fishing trawler Kuber and set sail for Mumbai.[39]

The Times reported on 3 December that Indian police were going to submit Kasab to a Narco Analysis test to definitively determine his nationality.[17]

According to the English-language Indian newspaper Daily News and Analysis, Kasab began reading the autobiography of India's non-violent activist leader Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in early March 2009, in response to gradual coaxing by prison guards.[86]

[edit] Legal issues

Several Indian lawyers refused to represent Kasab citing ethical concerns. A resolution was passed unanimously by the Bombay Metropolitan Magistrate Court's Bar Association, which has more than 1,000 members, saying that none of its members will defend any of the accused of the terror attacks.[87] In December 2008, the Chief Justice of India K. G. Balakrishnan said that for a fair trial, Kasab needed to get a lawyer.[88]

Kasab wrote to the Pakistani High Commission in India requesting help and legal aid. In the letter, he confirmed the nationality of himself and the nine slain terrorists as Pakistani.[89] He also asked the Pakistani High Commission to take custody of the body of fellow terrorist Ismail Khan, who was killed in an encounter in south Mumbai on the night of 26 November.[90] Pakistani officials confirmed the receipt of the letter and were reported to be studying its details. However, no further updates were given on the matter by Pakistan.

[edit] Trial

His conviction was based on CCTV footage showing him striding across the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus with an AK-47 and a backpack. Towards the end of December 2008, Ujjwal Nikam was appointed as Public Prosecutor for trying Kasab and in January 2009 M. L. Tahiliyani was appointed the judge for the case.[91] Indian investigators filed a 11,000 page Chargesheet against Kasab on 25 February 2009.[92] Due to the fact that the chargesheet was written in Marathi and English, Kasab had requested that an Urdu translation of the charge sheet be given to him.[93] He was charged with murder, conspiracy and waging war against India along with other crimes. His trial was originally scheduled to start on 15 April 2009 but was postponed as his lawyer, Anjali Waghmare was dismissed for a conflict of interest.[94] It resumed on 17 April after Abbas Kazmi was assigned as his new defense counsel.[95] On 20 April the prosecution submitted a list of charges against him, including the murder of 166 people.[91] On 6 May Kasab pleaded not guilty to 86 charges.[96] The same month he was identified by eyewitnesses who testified witnessing his actual arrival and him firing at the victims. Later the doctors who treated him also identified him. On 2 June 2009, Kasab told the judge he now also understood Marathi.[91]

In June 2009, the special court issued non-bailable warrants against 22 absconding accused including Jamaat-ud-Dawa (JuD) chief Hafeez Saeed and chief of operations of Lashkar-e-Taiba, Zaki-ur-Rehman Laqvi.[91] On 20 July 2009 Kasab retracted his non-guilty plea and pleaded guilty to all charges.[97] On 18 December 2009, he retracted his guilty plea and claimed that he was framed and his confession was obtained by torture. Instead he claimed to have come to Mumbai 20 days before the attacks and was simply roaming at Juhu beach when police arrested him.[98] The trial concluded on 31 March 2010 and on 3 May the verdict was pronounced - Kasab was found guilty of murder, conspiracy, and of waging war against India.[99] On 6 May he was sentenced to the death penalty.[100]

A Bombay High Court bench, composed of Justice Ranjana Desai and Justice Ranjit More, heard Kasab's appeal against the death penalty and upheld the sentence given by the trial court in their verdict on February 21, 2011.[101] On July 30 2011, Kasab moved to Supreme Court of India challenging his conviction and sentence in the case.[102] Thus, a bench composed of Justice Aftab Alam and Justice Chandramouli Kr. Prasad stayed the orders of the Bombay High Court, so as to follow the due process of law, and has started hearing the matter.

[edit] See also

[edit] Citations

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  2. ^ a b c d "Planned 9/11 at Taj: Caught Terrorist". Zee News. 2008-11-29. http://www.zeenews.com/nation/2008-11-29/487150news.html. 
  3. ^ "'Please give me saline'". Bangalore Mirror. 2008-11-29. http://www.bangaloremirror.com/index.aspx?page=article&sectid=1&contentid=2008112920081129095627277cedee9e0&sectxslt=. 
  4. ^ "Surviving gunman's identity established as Pakistani". Dawn (Pakistani Newspaper). 2009-01-07. http://www.dawn.net/wps/wcm/connect/Dawn%20Content%20Library/dawn/news/pakistan/surviving-gunmans-identity-established-as-pakistani-ss. Retrieved 2009-01-07. 
  5. ^ Irani, Delnaaz (3 May 2010). "Surviving Mumbai gunman convicted over attacks". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8657642.stm. Retrieved 3 May 2010. 
  6. ^ . http://ibnlive.in.com/news/2611-bombay-hc-upholds-kasabs-death-penalty/143895-3.html. 
  7. ^ "Kasab waged war against India: court". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2011-02-22. http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/article1478204.ece. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 
  8. ^ a b Baweja 2009, p. 118
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  10. ^ a b c d e "Captured Terrorist Ajmal Amir Kasav tells his story". The Times Of India. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/PoliticsNation/Captured_Terrorist_Ajmal_Amir_Kasav_tells_his_story/articleshow/3786708.cms. 
  11. ^ Tripathi, Rahul (2008-12-03). "We were reassured of escape after the attack: Kasab". The Times Of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/We_were_reassured_of_escape_after_the_attack_Kasab/articleshow/3785601.cms. 
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  17. ^ a b Blakely, Rhys (2008-12-03). "Mumbai police to use truth serum on 'baby-faced' terrorist Azam Amir Kasab". London: The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article5280084.ece. Retrieved 2008-12-03. 
  18. ^ "Kasab says his father sent him to LeT". http://www.dnaindia.com/report.asp?newsid=1210832. 
  19. ^ Blakely, Rhys (2008-12-02). "CCTV shows start of Mumbai massacre". The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article5274161.ece. Retrieved 2010-04-23. 
  20. ^ a b "Interview with Ajmal Amir's Father". The Times Of India. 2008-12-13. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/3827622.cms. 
  21. ^ "Kasab told his mother that he was going away for Jihad". http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/I-am-going-away-for-jihad-Kasab-told-his-mother-in-Pak/398067/. 
  22. ^ Blakely, Rhys (2008-12-02). "City fears five terrorists are missing". The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article5265938.ece. Retrieved 2010-04-23. 
  23. ^ Rahman, Maseeh; Jones, Sam (2008-12-01). "Rumours abound as inquiry begins its search for truth". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/dec/01/mumbai-terror-attacks-india-pakistan1. Retrieved 2008-12-01. 
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  32. ^ Lakshmi, Rama (2008-12-03). "Details Emerge From Sole Arrested Gunman". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/02/AR2008120202968_2.html. Retrieved 2008-12-03. 
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  37. ^ Wonacott, Peter; Anand, Geeta (2008-12-04). "Sole Captured Suspect Offers Grim Insights Into Massacre". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122834446748477265.html?mod=googlenews_wsj#. 
  38. ^ "No bullet hit Kasab, no active treatment on, says hospital's dean". http://www.indianexpress.com/news/No-bullet-hit-Kasab--no-active-treatment-on--says-hospital-s-dean/393116. 
  39. ^ a b c "Sydney Morning Herald". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2008-12-01. http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/we-wanted-to-kill-5000-surviving-terrorist-says/2008/11/30/1227979845539.html?page=2. 
  40. ^ Fanelli, James (2008-11-30). "Terrorist: 'I Do not Wanna Die'; Mumbai Mass Killer Turns Coward". New York Post. http://www.nypost.com/seven/11292008/news/worldnews/india_terror_timeline_141432.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  41. ^ "Straits Times article". http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/index.php/world/13499-terrorists-posed-as-malaysian-students. 
  42. ^ "We were reassured of escape after the attack Kasab". The Times Of India. 2008-12-03. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/PoliticsNation/We_were_reassured_of_escape_after_the_attack_Kasab/articleshow/3786776.cms. [dead link]
  43. ^ "Lashker-e-Taiba members learnt Hindi before Mumbai attacks". Press Trust of India. 2008-11-30. http://www.ptinews.com/pti%5Cptisite.nsf/0/99F16988F6BDB91165257511003FB3F5?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2008-12-05. [dead link]
  44. ^ "Terror mail routed through Pakistan's Lahore". Times of India. 2008-12-02. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/Terror_mail_routed_through_Pakistans_Lahore/articleshow/3781555.cms. Retrieved 2008-12-05. 
  45. ^ Enough evidence, now Pak must act: Pranab Mukherjee
  46. ^ Shah, Saeed (2008-12-07). "Revealed: home of Mumbai's gunman in Pakistan village, The Observer, 07-Dec-2008". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/dec/07/mumbai-terrorism-india-pakistan. Retrieved 2010-04-23. 
  47. ^ Shah, Saeed (2008-12-07). "Mumbai terrorist came from Pakistan, local villagers confirm". London: The Observer. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/dec/07/mumbai-terrorism-india-pakistan1. Retrieved 2008-12-07. 
  48. ^ "Revealing the Faridkot-Mumbai link, Dawn News special report, 12-Dec-2008". http://www.dawn.net/wps/wcm/connect/Dawn%20Content%20Library/dawn/news/pakistan/revealing-the-faridkot-mumbai-link-wk. 
  49. ^ "Why cordon off Kasab's village? Nawaz Sharif". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2008-12-19. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/000200812191645.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-19. 
  50. ^ Shah, Saeed (7 December 2008). "Revealed: home of Mumbai's gunman in Pakistan village". London: The Observer. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/dec/07/mumbai-terrorism-india-pakistan. 
  51. ^ Wonacott, Peter; Anand, Geeta (2008-12-04). "Sole captured suspect offers grim insights into massacre, Wall St Journal, 04-Dec-2008". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122834446748477265.html?mod=googlenews_wsj#. 
  52. ^ Ajmal Kasab is Pakistani, says Sharif
  53. ^ After India, Sharif slams Zardari, says Kasab from Pak
  54. ^ "Revealed: Home of Mumbai gunman in Pakistani village, The Hindu Online, 08-Dec-2008". Chennai, India. 2008-12-08. http://www.hindu.com/2008/12/08/stories/2008120859411000.htm. 
  55. ^ Gunman in Mumbai Siege a Pakistani, Official Says – NYTimes
  56. ^ a b Swami, Praveen (2008-12-06). "Terrorist's name lost in transliteration". Chennai, India: The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/2008/12/06/stories/2008120661211200.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-06. 
  57. ^ "Mumbai cops gave Ajmal his surname". Times of India. 2008-12-07. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Mumbai/Mumbai_cops_gave_Ajmal_his_surname/articleshow/3803029.cms. Retrieved 2008-12-07. 
  58. ^ "Cops called him 'Kasav' as dad was a butcher". Times of India. 2008-12-07. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/Cops_called_him_Kasav_as_dad_was_a_butcher/articleshow/3803542.cms. Retrieved 2008-12-07. 
  59. ^ "Now, arrested terrorist Ajmal says kill me". The Times Of India. 2008-11-30. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/Now_arrested_terrorist_Ajmal_says_kill_me/articleshow/3775413.cms. 
  60. ^ "Mumbai massacre story unfolds in terrorist's interrogation". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2008-12-02. http://www.hindu.com/2008/12/02/stories/2008120257410100.htm. 
  61. ^ "Suspect Arrest". Sky News. 2008-12-01. http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/World-News/Mumbai-Terror-Attacks-Sky-News-Gets-Exclusive-Footage-Of-Gun-Suspect-Ajmal-Qasabs-Arrest/Article/200812115168244?lpos=World_News_Top_Stories_Header_0&lid=ARTICLE_15168244_Mumbai_Terror_Attacks%3A_Sky_News_Gets_Exclusive_Footage_Of_Gun_Suspect_Ajmal_Qasabs_Arrest. Retrieved 2008-12-02. 
  62. ^ "Three Lashkar fidayeen captured". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2008-11-29. http://www.hindu.com/2008/11/28/stories/2008112862080100.htm. 
  63. ^ "Arrested terrorist says gang hoped to get away". Economic Times, India. 2008-11-29. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/PoliticsNation/Arrested_terrorist_says_gang_hoped_to_get_away/articleshow/msid-3772281,curpg-1.cms. 
  64. ^ "Indian Express: we trained in Lashkar camps, arrested terrorist". http://www.indianexpress.com/news/we-trained-in-lashkar-camps-arrested-terrorist/392088/. 
  65. ^ "Business Intelligence Middle East". http://www.bi-me.com/main.php?id=28080&t=1&c=33&cg=4&mset=. 
  66. ^ Hafeez, Mateen (2008-11-29). "Times of India: 10 terrorists have entered Mumbai". The Times Of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/10_terrorists_had_entered_Mumbai_Police/articleshow/3774122.cms. 
  67. ^ "Gulf News: Lone surviving gunman reveals operation details". http://www.gulfnews.com/world/India/10263664.html. 
  68. ^ "The Hindu: Pakistan now holds the key to probe: investigators". Chennai, India. 2008-12-01. http://www.hindu.com/2008/12/01/stories/2008120157370100.htm. 
  69. ^ "Gunman 'requests Pakistan help'". BBC News. 2008-12-22. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/7796381.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  70. ^ Sam Coates and Jeremy Page (2008-12-15). "British police to interview Mumbai suspect Mohammed Ajmal Amir Qasab". London: The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article5339635.ece. 
  71. ^ Mumbai Mirror (2008-11-29). "I want to live: Captured terrorist Azam". Politics/Nation (economictimes.indiatimes.com). http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/I_want_to_live_Captured_terrorist_Azam/articleshow/3772298.cms. Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  72. ^ Wade, Matt (2008-12-01). "Captured terrorist reveals plot to kill up to 5000". Melbourne: The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/world/captured-terrorist-reveals-plot-to-kill-up-to-5000-20081130-6nrv.html?page=-1. Retrieved 2008-12-01. 
  73. ^ Shah, Saeed (2008-12-02). "Sleepy village baffled by link to captured terrorist". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/dec/02/mumbai-gunman-faridkot. Retrieved 2010-04-23. 
  74. ^ "Hunting Mumbai terrorist's roots". BBC News. 2008-12-02. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7759309.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  75. ^ "Captured Mumbai attacker's identity eludes investigators". http://features.csmonitor.com/breaking/2008/12/02/captured-mumbai-attacker%E2%80%99s-identity-eludes-investigators/. 
  76. ^ "Pak security agencies, media search for Mumbai terrorist's native village". http://indiatoday.digitaltoday.in/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=21530&sectionid=4&issueid=82&Itemid=1. 
  77. ^ a b c "Please give me saline". Bangalore Mirror. 2008-11-29. http://www.bangaloremirror.com/index.aspx?page=article&sectid=1&contentid=2008112920081129095627277cedee9e0&sectxslt=. 
  78. ^ Terrorist: We were sent to target Israelis, Jewish Telegraph Agency (JTA),30 November 2008.
  79. ^ "Terrorists at Chabad House 'deliberately targeted' Jewish building". Jerusalem Post. 2008-11-30. http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1227702365053&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  80. ^ "Kasab confesses, says no regrets on Mumbai mayhem". MSN News. 2008-11-30. http://news.in.msn.com/national/article.aspx?cp-documentid=1711188. Retrieved 2008-11-30. [dead link]
  81. ^ "Kasab is the son of Mohammed Amir Kasab from the Faridkot village in the Okara district of Pakistan". CNN. 2008-12-04. http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/12/03/india.attacks/index.html. Retrieved 2010-04-23. 
  82. ^ "Arrested terrorist reveals all to police". NDTV. 2008-11-29. http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/mumbaiterrorstrike/Election_Story.aspx?ID=NEWEN20080074564&type=News. Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  83. ^ Ajab Kasab ki ghazab kahani, Banglore Mirror, 18 December 2009
  84. ^ a b c d e "Mumbai Terrorist Wanted to Kill and Die and Become Famous, ABC News, 03-Dec-2008". http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/Story?id=6385015&page=2. 
  85. ^ Lakshmi, Rama (2008-12-03). "Washington Post—Indian Investigators reveal details culled from arrested gunman, retrieved 3-Dec-2008". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/02/AR2008120202968.html. Retrieved 2010-04-23. 
  86. ^ Dixit, Nikhil (2009-03-17). "Ajmal is Reading Gandhi in Jail". DNA (Daily News and Analysis). http://www.dnaindia.com/report.asp?newsid=1239725. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  87. ^ Lawyers refuse to take up arrested terrorist's case
  88. ^ Kasab should get lawyer for fair trial
  89. ^ Gunman 'requests Pakistan help'
  90. ^ India hands Kasab's letter to Pak high commission
  91. ^ a b c d Mumbai Attacks: A Chronology of the Trial, Outlook India, 20-Jul-2009
  92. ^ Kumar, Hari (26 February 2009). "Pakistani charged in Mumbai assault". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/26/world/asia/26mumbai.html. 
  93. ^ "26/11 trial: Kasab seeks translated copy of chargesheet". The Times Of India. 2009-03-10. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/2611_trial_Kasab_seeks_translated_copy_of_chargesheet/articleshow/4246845.cms. 
  94. ^ "Anjali Waghmare removed as Qasab's lawyer". NDTV. 15 April 2009. http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20090090863. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  95. ^ The Hindu Ajmal Kasab gets a new lawyer
  96. ^ "Mumbai suspect denies all charges". BBC News. 2009-05-06. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8035809.stm. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  97. ^ "'I confess... please end my trial, deliver your judgment'". Indian Express. 2009-07-20. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/kasab-confesses-to-role-in-26-11-terror-attacks/491739. Retrieved 2011-09-16. 
  98. ^ Mumbai accused says he was framed – BBC
  99. ^ "Indian court convicts Pakistani for Mumbai siege". Associated Press. http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5hfCYOKxkJou-hpK6D9bq_8zIZ9hAD9FFAI500. 
  100. ^ "Mumbai attack gunman Kasab sentenced to death". BBC News. 6 May 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8664179.stm. Retrieved 7 May 2010. 
  101. ^ "26/11: Bombay HC confirms Kasab's death sentence". Indian Express. 2011-02-21. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/26-11-bombay-hc-confirms-kasabs-death-sentence/752675/. Retrieved 2011-02-21. 
  102. ^ Kasab moves SC against death penalty, Times of India, 30 July 2011, http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-07-30/india/29832746_1_ajmal-kasab-trial-court-cama-hospital, retrieved 1 August 2011 

[edit] References

  • Baweja, Harinder (2009). 26/11: Mumbai attacked. Mumbai, India: Roli Books. ISBN 9788174367075 .

[edit] External links

Personal tools

Source: IANS

2008 Mumbai attacks

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2008 Mumbai attacks

Map of the 2008 Mumbai attacks
Date 26 November 2008 – 29 November 2008 (IST, UTC+05:30)
Attack type Bombings, shootings, hostage crisis,[1] siege
Death(s) Approximately 164 (including 10 attackers)[2]
Injured More than 308[2]
Perpetrator(s) Lashkar-e-Taiba led by Hafiz Muhammad Saeed[3][4]

The 2008 Mumbai attacks (sometimes referred to as 26/11) were more than 10 coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai, India's largest city, by Islamist attackers[5][6] who came from Pakistan.[7] The attackers received reconnaissance assistance before the attacks, Ajmal Kasab later claimed upon interrorgation that the attacks were conducted with the support of Pakistan's ISI.[8][9] The attacks, which drew widespread global condemnation, began on Wednesday, 26 November and lasted until Saturday, 29 November 2008, killing 164 people and wounding at least 308.[2][10]

Eight of the attacks occurred in South Mumbai: at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, the Oberoi Trident,[11] the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower,[11] Leopold Cafe, Cama Hospital (a women and children's hospital),[11] the Nariman House Jewish community centre,[12] the Metro Cinema,[13] and a lane behind the Times of India building and St. Xavier's College.[11] There was also an explosion at Mazagaon, in Mumbai's port area, and in a taxi at Vile Parle.[14] By the early morning of 28 November, all sites except for the Taj hotel had been secured by Mumbai Police and security forces. On 29 November, India's National Security Guards (NSG) conducted Operation Black Tornado to flush out the remaining attackers; it resulted in the death of the last remaining attackers at the Taj hotel and ending all fighting in the attacks.[15]

Ajmal Kasab,[16] the only attacker who was captured alive, disclosed that the attackers were members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, the Pakistan-based militant organisation, considered a terrorist organisation by India, Pakistan, the United States, the United Kingdom, and the United Nations,[17] among others.[18] The Indian government said that the attackers came from Pakistan, and their controllers were in Pakistan.[19] On 7 January 2009,[20] Pakistan's Information Minister Sherry Rehman officially accepted Ajmal Kasab's nationality as Pakistani.[21] On 12 February 2009, Pakistan's Interior Minister Rehman Malik asserted that parts of the attack had been planned in Pakistan.[22] A trial court on 6 May 2010 sentenced Ajmal Kasab to death on five counts.


[edit] Background

One of the bomb-damaged coaches at the Mahim station in Mumbai during the 11 July 2006 train bombings

There have been many bombings in Mumbai since the 13 coordinated bomb explosions that killed 257 people and injured 700 on 12 March 1993.[23] The 1993 attacks are believed to have been in retaliation for the Babri Mosque demolition.[24]

On 6 December 2002, a blast in a BEST bus near Ghatkopar station killed two people and injured 28.[25] The bombing occurred on the tenth anniversary of the demolition of the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya.[26] A bicycle bomb exploded near the Vile Parle station in Mumbai, killing one person and injuring 25 on 27 January 2003, a day before the visit of the Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee to the city.[27] On 13 March 2003, a day after the tenth anniversary of the 1993 Bombay bombings, a bomb exploded in a train compartment near the Mulund station, killing 10 people and injuring 70.[28] On 28 July 2003, a blast in a BEST bus in Ghatkopar killed 4 people and injured 32.[29] On 25 August 2003, two bombs exploded in South Mumbai, one near the Gateway of India and the other at Zaveri Bazaar in Kalbadevi. At least 44 people were killed and 150 injured.[30] On 11 July 2006, seven bombs exploded within 11 minutes on the Suburban Railway in Mumbai.[31] 209 people were killed, including 22 foreigners[32][33] and over 700 injured.[34][35] According to the Mumbai Police, the bombings were carried out by Lashkar-e-Taiba and Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI).[36][37]

[edit] Attacks

The first events were detailed around 20:00 Indian Standard Time (IST) on 26 November, when 10 men in inflatable speedboats came ashore at two locations in Colaba. They reportedly told local Marathi-speaking fishermen who asked them who they were to "mind their own business" before they split up and headed two different ways. The fishermen's subsequent report to police received little response.[38]

[edit] Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus

Bullet marks on the wall of the suburban terminus at CST

The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) was attacked by two gunmen, one of whom, Ajmal Kasab, was later caught alive by the police and identified by eyewitnesses. The attacks began around 21:30 when the two men entered the passenger hall and opened fire,[39] using AK-47 rifles.[40] The attackers killed 58 people and injured 104 others,[40] their assault ending at about 22:45.[39] Security forces and emergency services arrived shortly afterwards. The two gunmen fled the scene and fired at pedestrians and police officers in the streets, killing eight police officers. The attackers passed a police station. Many of the outgunned police officers were afraid to confront the attackers, and instead switched off the lights and secured the gates. The attackers then headed towards Cama Hospital with an intention to kill patients,[41] but the hospital staff locked all of the patient wards. A team of the Mumbai Anti-Terrorist Squad led by police chief Hemant Karkare searched the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and then left in pursuit of Kasab and Khan. Kasab and Khan opened fire on the vehicle in a lane next to the hospital and the police returned fire. Karkare, Vijay Salaskar, Ashok Kamte and one of their officers were killed, though the only survivor, Constable Arun Jadhav, was wounded.[42] Kasab and Khan seized the police vehicle but later abandoned it and seized a passenger car instead. They then ran into a police roadblock, which had been set up after Jadhav radioed for help.[43] A gun battle then ensued in which Khan was killed and Kasab was wounded. After a physical struggle, Kasab was arrested.[44] A police officer, Tukaram Omble was also killed.

[edit] Leopold Cafe

The Leopold Cafe, a popular restaurant and bar on Colaba Causeway in South Mumbai, was one of the first sites to be attacked.[45] Two attackers opened fire on the cafe on the evening of 26 November, killing at least 10 people (including some foreigners), and injuring many more.[46] The attackers fired into the street as they fled the scene.[citation needed]

Bullet marks left at Leopold Cafe

[edit] Bomb blasts in taxis

There were two explosions in taxis caused by timer bombs. The first one occurred at 22:40 at Vile Parle, killing the driver and a passenger. The second explosion took place at Wadi Bunder between 22:20 and 22:25. Three people including the driver of the taxi were killed, and about 15 other people were injured.[14][47]

[edit] Taj Mahal Hotel and Oberoi Trident

The damaged Oberoi Trident hotel

Two hotels, the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower and the Oberoi Trident, were amongst the four locations targeted. Six explosions were reported at the Taj hotel and one at the Oberoi Trident.[48][49] At the Taj Mahal, firefighters rescued 200 hostages from windows using ladders during the first night.

CNN initially reported on the morning of 27 November 2008 that the hostage situation at the Taj had been resolved and quoted the police chief of Maharashtra stating that all hostages were freed;[50] however, it was learned later that day that there were still two attackers holding hostages, including foreigners, in the Taj Mahal hotel.[51]

The Wasabi restaurant on the first floor of the Taj Hotel was completely gutted.

During the attacks, both hotels were surrounded by Rapid Action Force personnel and Marine Commandos (MARCOS) and National Security Guards (NSG) commandos.[52][53] When reports emerged that attackers were receiving television broadcasts, feeds to the hotels were blocked.[54] Security forces stormed both hotels, and all nine attackers were killed by the morning of 29 November.[55][56] Major Sandeep Unnikrishnan of the NSG was killed during the rescue of Commando Sunil Yadav, who was hit in the leg by a bullet during the rescue operations at Taj.[57][58] 32 hostages were killed at the Oberoi Trident.[59]

A number of European Parliament Committee on International Trade delegates were staying in the Taj Mahal hotel when it was attacked,[60] but none of them were injured.[61] British Conservative Member of the European Parliament (MEP) Sajjad Karim (who was in the lobby when attackers initially opened fire there) and German Social Democrat MEP Erika Mann were hiding in different parts of the building.[62] Also reported present was Spanish MEP Ignasi Guardans, who was barricaded in a hotel room.[63][64] Another British Conservative MEP, Syed Kamall, reported that he along with several other MEPs left the hotel and went to a nearby restaurant shortly before the attack.[62] Kamall also reported that Polish MEP Jan Masiel was thought to have been sleeping in his hotel room when the attacks started, but eventually left the hotel safely.[65] Kamall and Guardans reported that a Hungarian MEP's assistant was shot.[62][66] Also caught up in the shooting were the President of Madrid, Esperanza Aguirre, while checking in at the Oberoi Trident,[66] and Indian MP N. N. Krishnadas of Kerala and Sir Gulam Noon while having dinner at a restaurant in the Taj hotel.[67][68]

[edit] Nariman House

Front view of the Nariman House a week after the attacks

Nariman House, a Chabad Lubavitch Jewish center in Colaba known as the Mumbai Chabad House, was taken over by two attackers and several residents were held hostage.[69] Police evacuated adjacent buildings and exchanged fire with the attackers, wounding one. Local residents were told to stay inside. The attackers threw a grenade into a nearby lane, causing no casualties. NSG commandos arrived from Delhi, and a Naval helicopter took an aerial survey. During the first day, 9 hostages were rescued from the first floor. The following day, the house was stormed by NSG commandos fast-roping from helicopters onto the roof, covered by snipers positioned in nearby buildings. After a long battle, one NSG commando and both perpetrators were killed.[70] Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg and his wife Rivka Holtzberg, who was six months pregnant, were murdered with four other hostages inside the house by the attackers.[71]

According to radio transmissions picked up by Indian intelligence, the attackers "would be told by their handlers in Pakistan that the lives of Jews were worth 50 times those of non-Jews." Injuries reported on some of the bodies indicate they may have been tortured.[72][73]

[edit] End of the attacks

By the morning of 27 November, the army had secured the Jewish outreach center at Nariman House as well as the Oberoi Trident hotel. They also incorrectly believed that the Taj Mahal Palace and Towers had been cleared of attackers, and soldiers were leading hostages and holed-up guests to safety, and removing bodies of those killed in the attacks.[74][75][76] However, later news reports indicated that there were still two or three attackers in the Taj, with explosions heard and gunfire exchanged.[76] Fires were also reported at the ground floor of the Taj with plumes of smoke arising from the first floor.[76] The final operation at the Taj Mahal Palace hotel was completed by the NSG commandos at 08:00 on 29 November, killing three attackers and resulting in the conclusion of the attacks.[77] The security forces rescued 250 people from the Oberoi, 300 from the Taj and 60 people (members of 12 different families) from Nariman House.[78] In addition, police seized a boat filled with arms and explosives anchored at Mazgaon dock off Mumbai harbour.[79]

[edit] Attribution

Ajmal Kasab, the only perpetrator caught alive, at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus

The Mumbai attacks were planned and directed by Lashkar-e-Taiba militants inside Pakistan, and carried out by ten young armed men trained and sent to Mumbai and directed from inside Pakistan via mobile phones and VoIP.[18][80][81]

In July 2009 Pakistani authorities confirmed that LeT plotted and financed the attacks from LeT camps in Karachi and Thatta.[82] In November 2009, Pakistani authorities charged seven men they had arrested earlier, of planning and executing the assault.[83]

Mumbai police originally identified 37 suspects — including two army officers — for their alleged involvement in the plot. All but two of the suspects, many of whom are identified only through aliases, are Pakistani.[84] Two more suspects arrested in the United States in October 2009 for other attacks were also found to have been involved in planning the Mumbai attacks.[85][86] One of these men, Pakistani American David Headley, was found to have made several trips to India before the attacks and gathered video and GPS information on behalf of the plotters.

In April 2011, the United States issued arrest warrants for four Pakistani men as suspects in the attack. The men, Sajid Mir, Abu Qahafa, Mazhar Iqbal, and alias "Major Iqbal", are believed to be members of Lashkar-e-Taiba and helped plan and train the attackers.[87]

[edit] Negotiations with Pakistan

Pakistan initially denied that Pakistanis were responsible for the attacks, blaming plotters in Bangladesh and Indian criminals,[88] a claim refuted by India,[89] and saying they needed information from India on other bombings first.[90]

Pakistani authorities finally agreed that Ajmal Kasab was a Pakistani on 7 January 2009,[20][91][92] and registered a case against three other Pakistani nationals.[93]

The Indian government supplied evidence to Pakistan and other governments, in the form of interrogations, weapons, and call records of conversations during the attacks.[3][94] In addition, Indian government officials said that the attacks were so sophisticated that they must have had official backing from Pakistani "agencies", an accusation denied by Pakistan.[81][91]

Under US and UN pressure, Pakistan arrested a few members of Jamaat ud-Dawa and briefly put its founder under house arrest, but he was found to be free a few days later.[95] A year after the attacks, Mumbai police continued to complain that Pakistani authorities are not cooperating by providing information for their investigation.[96] Meanwhile, journalists in Pakistan said security agencies were preventing them from interviewing people from Kasab's village.[97][98] Home Minister P. Chidambaram said the Pakistani authorities had not shared any information about American suspects Headley and Rana, but that the FBI had been more forthcoming.[99]

An Indian report, summarising intelligence gained from India's interrogation of David Headley,[100] was released in October 2010. It alleged that Pakistan's intelligence agency (ISI) had provided support for the attacks by providing funding for reconnaissance missions in Mumbai.[101] The report included Headley's claim that Lashkar-e-Taiba's chief military commander, Zaki-ur-Rahman Lakhvi, had close ties to the ISI.[100] He alleged that "every big action of LeT is done in close coordination with [the] ISI."[101]

[edit] Investigation

Police looking for attackers outside Colaba

According to investigations, the attackers traveled by sea from Karachi, Pakistan, across the Arabian Sea, hijacked the Indian fishing trawler 'Kuber', killed the crew of four, then forced the captain to sail to Mumbai. After murdering the captain, the attackers entered Mumbai on a rubber dinghy. The captain of 'Kuber', Amar Singh Solanki, had earlier been imprisoned for six months in a Pakistani jail for illegally fishing in Pakistani waters.[102] The attackers stayed and were trained by the Lashkar-e-Taiba in a safehouse at Azizabad near Karachi before boarding a small boat for Mumbai.[103]

David Headley was a member of Lashkar-e-Taiba, and between 2002 and 2009 Headley traveled extensively as part of his work for LeT. Headley received training in small arms and countersurveillance from LeT, built a network of connections for the group, and was chief scout in scoping out targets for Mumbai attack[104][105] having allegedly been given $25,000 in cash in 2006 by an ISI officer known as Major Iqbal, The officer also helped him arrange a communications system for the attack, and oversaw a model of the Taj Mahal Hotel so that gunmen could know their way inside the target, according to Headley's testimony to Indian authorities. Headley also helped ISI recruit Indian agents to monitor Indian troop levels and movements, according to a US official. At the same time, Headley was also an informant for the US Drug Enforcement Agency, and Headley's wives warned American officials of Headley's involvement with LeT and his plotting attacks, warning specifically that the Taj Mahal Hotel may be their target.[104]

US officials believed that the Inter-Services Intelligence (I.S.I.) officers provided support to Lashkar-e-Taiba militants who carried out the attacks.[106]

[edit] Method

The attackers had planned the attack several months ahead of time and knew some areas well enough for the attackers to vanish, and reappear after security forces had left. Several sources have quoted Kasab telling the police that the group received help from Mumbai residents.[107][108] The attackers used at least three SIM cards purchased on the Indian side of the border with Bangladesh.[109] There were also reports of a SIM card purchased in the US state New Jersey.[110] Police had also mentioned that Faheem Ansari, an Indian Lashkar operative who had been arrested in February 2008, had scouted the Mumbai targets for the November attacks.[111] Later, the police arrested two Indian suspects, Mikhtar Ahmad, who is from Srinagar in Kashmir, and Tausif Rehman, a resident of Kolkata. They supplied the SIM cards, one in Calcutta, and the other in New Delhi.[112]

Type 86 Grenades made by China's state-owned Norinco were used in the attacks.[113]

Blood tests on the attackers indicate that they had taken cocaine and LSD during the attacks, to sustain their energy and stay awake for 50 hours. Police say that they found syringes on the scenes of the attacks. There were also indications that they had been taking steroids.[114] The gunman who survived said that the attackers had used Google Earth to familiarise themselves with the locations of buildings used in the attacks.[115]

There were ten gunmen, nine of whom were subsequently shot dead and one captured by security forces.[116][117] Witnesses reported that they looked to be in their early twenties, wore black t-shirts and jeans, and that they smiled and looked happy as they shot their victims.[118]

It was initially reported that some of the attackers were British citizens,[119][120] but the Indian government later stated that there was no evidence to confirm this.[121] Similarly, early reports of twelve gunmen[122] were also later shown to be incorrect.[3]

On 9 December, the ten attackers were identified by Mumbai police, along with their home towns in Pakistan: Ajmal Amir from Faridkot, Abu Ismail Dera Ismail Khan from Dera Ismail Khan, Hafiz Arshad and Babr Imran from Multan, Javed from Okara, Shoaib from Narowal, Nazih and Nasr from Faisalabad, Abdul Rahman from Arifwalla, and Fahad Ullah from Dipalpur Taluka. Dera Ismail Khan is in the North-West Frontier Province; the rest of the towns are in Pakistani Punjab.[123]

On 6 April 2010, the Home minister of Maharashtra State, which includes Mumbai, informed the assembly that the bodies of the nine killed Pakistani gunmen from the 2008 attack on Mumbai were buried in a secret location in January 2010. The bodies had been in the mortuary of a Mumbai hospital after Muslim clerics in the city refused to let them be buried on their grounds.[124]

[edit] Arrests

Ajmal Kasab was the only attacker arrested alive by police and is currently under arrest.[125] Much of the information about the attackers' preparation, travel, and movements comes from his confessions to the Mumbai police.[126]

On 12 February 2009 Pakistan's Interior Minister Rehman Malik said that Pakistani national Javed Iqbal, who acquired VoIP phones in Spain for the Mumbai attackers, and Hamad Ameen Sadiq, who had facilitated money transfer for the attack, had been arrested.[93] Two other men known as Khan and Riaz, but whose full names were not given, were also arrested.[127] Two Pakistanis were arrested in Brescia, Italy (north-west of Milan), on 21 November 2009, after being accused of providing logistical support to the attacks and transferring over US$200 to internet accounts using a false ID.[128][129] They had Red Corner Notices issued against them by Interpol for their suspected involvement and it was issued after the last year's strikes. [130]

In October 2009, two Chicago men were arrested and charged by the FBI for involvement in terrorism abroad, David Coleman Headley and Tahawwur Hussain Rana. Headley, a Pakistani-American, was charged in November 2009 with scouting locations for the 2008 Mumbai attacks.[131][132] Headley is reported to have posed as an American Jew and is believed to have links with militant Islamist groups based in Bangladesh.[133] On 18 March 2010, Headley pled guilty to a dozen charges against him thereby avoiding going to trial.

In December 2009, the FBI charged Abdur Rehman Hashim Syed, a retired major in the Pakistani army, for planning the terror attacks in association with Headley.[134]

On 15 January 2010, in a successful snatch operation R&AW agents nabbed Sheikh Abdul Khwaja, one of the handlers of the 26/11 attacks, chief of HuJI India operations and a most wanted terror suspect in India, from Colombo, Sri Lanka, and brought him over to Hyderabad, India for formal arrest.[135]

[edit] Casualties and compensation

At least 166 victims (civilians and security personnel) and nine attackers were killed in the attacks. Among the dead were 28 foreign nationals from 10 countries.[2][50][136][137][138] One attacker was captured.[139] The bodies of many of the dead hostages showed signs of torture or disfigurement.[140] A number of those killed were notable figures in business, media, and security services.[141][142][143]

The government of Maharashtra announced about 500,000 (US$10,140) as compensation to the kin of each of those killed in the terror attacks and about 50,000 (US$1,014) to the seriously injured.[144] In August 2009, Indian Hotels Company and the Oberoi Group received about $28 million USD as part-payment of the insurance claims, on account of the attacks on Taj Mahal and Trident, from General Insurance Corporation of India.[145]

[edit] Aftermath

The attacks are sometimes referred to in India as "26/11", after the date in 2008 that they began and the nomenclature behind the 9/11 attacks (akin to that of the 3/11 attack in Madrid). The Pradhan Inquiry Commission, appointed by the Maharashtra government, produced a report that was tabled before the legislative assembly over one year after the events. The report said the "war-like" attack was beyond the capacity of any police force, but it also found fault with the Mumbai Police Commissionaer Hasan Gafoor's lack of leadership during the crisis.[146]

The Maharashtra government planned to buy 36 speed boats to patrol the coastal areas and several helicopters for the same purpose. It also planned to create an anti-terror force called "Force One" and upgrade all the weapons that Mumbai police currently have.[147] Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on an all-party conference declared that legal framework would be strengthened in the battle against terrorism and a federal anti-terrorist intelligence and investigation agency, like the FBI, will be set up soon to coordinate action against terrorism.[148] The government strengthened anti-terror laws with UAPA 2008, and the federal National Investigation Agency was formed.

The attacks further strained India's slowly recovering relationship with Pakistan. External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee declared that India may indulge in military strikes against terror camps in Pakistan to protect its territorial integrity. There were also after-effects on the United States's relationships with both countries,[149] the US-led NATO war in Afghanistan,[150] and on the Global War on Terror.[151] FBI chief Robert Mueller praised the "unprecedented cooperation" between American and Indian intelligence agencies over Mumbai terror attack probe.[152] Interpol secretary general Ronald Noble indicated Indian intelligence agencies did not share any information with them.[153]

[edit] Movement of troops

Pakistan moved troops towards the border with India border voicing concerns about the Indian government's possible plans to launch attacks on Pakistani soil if it did not cooperate. After days of talks, the Pakistan government, however, decided to start moving troops away from the border.[154]

[edit] Reactions

Candlelight vigils at the Gateway of India in Mumbai

Indians criticised their political leaders after the attacks, saying that their ineptness was partly responsible. The Times of India commented on its front page that "Our politicians fiddle as innocents die."[155] Political reactions in Mumbai and India included a range of resignations and political changes, including the resignations of Minister for Home Affairs Shivraj Patil,[156] Chief Minister Vilasrao Deshmukh[157] and Deputy Chief Minister R. R. Patil[158] for controversial reactions to the attack including taking the former's son and Bollywood director Ram Gopal Verma to tour the damaged Taj Mahal and the latters remarks that the attacks were not a big deal in such a large city. Prominent Muslim personalities such as Bollywood actor Aamir Khan appealed to their community members in the country to observe Eid al-Adha as a day of mourning on 9 December.[159] The business establishment also reacted, with changes to transport, and requests for an increase in self-defense capabilities.[160] The attacks also triggered a chain of citizens' movements across India such as the India Today Group's "War Against Terror" campaign. There were vigils held across all of India with candles and placards commemorating the victims of the attacks.[161] The NSG commandos based in Delhi also met criticism for taking 10 hours to reach the 3 sites under attack.[162][163]

International reaction for the attacks was widespread, with many countries and international organisations condemning the attacks and expressing their condolences to the civilian victims. Many important personalities around the world also condemned the attacks.[164]

Media coverage highlighted the use of new media and Internet social networking tools, including Twitter and Flickr, in spreading information about the attacks. In addition, many Indian bloggers and Wikipedia offered live textual coverage of the attacks.[165] A map of the attacks was set up by a web journalist using Google Maps.[166][167] The New York Times, in July 2009, described the event as "what may be the most well-documented terrorist attack anywhere."[168]

In November 2010, families of American victims of the attacks filed a lawsuit in Brooklyn, New York, naming Lt. Gen. Ahmed Shuja Pasha, chief of the I.S.I., as being complicit in the Mumbai attacks. On September 22, 2011, the attack on the American Embassy in Afghanistan, was attributed to Pakistan via cell phone records identical to the attacks in Mumbai, also linked to Pakistan. The investigation continues.[106]

[edit] Trials

[edit] Kasab's trial

Kasab's trial was delayed due to legal issues, as many Indian lawyers were unwilling to represent him. A Mumbai Bar Association passed a resolution proclaiming that none of its members would represent Kasab. However, the Chief Justice of India stated that Kasab needed a lawyer for a fair trial. A lawyer for Kasab was eventually found, but was replaced due to a conflict of interest. On 25 February 2009, Indian investigators filed an 11,000-page chargesheet, formally charging Kasab with murder, conspiracy, and waging war against India among other charges.

Kasab's trial began on 6 May 2009. He initially pleaded not guilty, but later admitted his guilt on 20 July 2009. He initially apologized for the attacks and claimed that he deserved the death penalty for his crimes, but later retracted these claims, saying that he had been tortured by police to force his confession, and that he had been arrested while roaming the beach. The court had accepted his plea, but due to the lack of completeness within his admittance, the judge had deemed that many of the 86 charges were not addressed and therefore the trial continued.

Kasab was convicted of all 86 charges on 3 May 2010. He was found guilty of murder for directly killing seven people, conspiracy to commit murder for the deaths of the 166 people killed in the three-day terror siege, waging war against India, causing terror, and of conspiracy to murder two high-ranking police officers. On 6 May 2010, he was sentenced to death by hanging.[169] [170] [171] [172] However, he appealed his sentence at high court.[citation needed]On 21 February 2011, the Bombay High Court upheld the death sentence of Kasab, dismissing his appeal.[173]

[edit] Trials in Pakistan

Indian and Pakistani police have exchanged DNA evidence, photographs and items found with the attackers to piece together a detailed portrait of the Mumbai plot. Police in Pakistan have arrested seven people, including Hammad Amin Sadiq, a homeopathic pharmacist, who arranged bank accounts and secured supplies. Sadiq and six others begin their formal trial on 3 October 2009 in Pakistan, though Indian authorities say the prosecution stops well short of top Lashkar leaders.[174] In November 2009, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said that Pakistan has not done enough to bring the perpetrators of the attacks to justice.[175]

On the eve of the first anniversary of 26/11, a Pakistani anti-terror court formally charged seven accused, including LeT operations commander Zaki ur Rehman Lakhvi.

[edit] Trials in U.S.A.

The LeT operative David Headley in his testimony before a Chicago federal court during co-accused Tahawwur Rana's trial revealed that Mumbai Chabad House was added to the list of targets for surveillance given by his Inter Services Intelligence handler Major Iqbal, though the Oberoi hotel, one of the sites attacked, was not originally on the list.[176] On June 10, 2011, Tahawwur Rana was acquitted of plotting the 2008 Mumbai attacks, but was held guilty on two other charges.[177]

[edit] Locations

All the incidents except the explosion at Vile Parle took place in downtown South Mumbai.

[edit] Memorials

On the first anniversary of the event, the state paid homage to the victims of the attack. Force One—a new security force created by the Maharashtra government—staged a parade from Nariman Point to Chowpatty. Other memorials and candlelight vigils were also organised at the various locations where the attacks occurred.[178]

On the second anniversary of the event, homage was again paid to the victims.[179] Security forces were also displayed from Nariman Point.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

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