THE HIMALAYAN TALK: INDIAN GOVERNMENT FOOD SECURITY PROGRAM RISKIER

http://youtu.be/NrcmNEjaN8c The government of India has announced food security program ahead of elections in 2014. We discussed the issue with Palash Biswas in Kolkata today. http://youtu.be/NrcmNEjaN8c Ahead of Elections, India's Cabinet Approves Food Security Program ______________________________________________________ By JIM YARDLEY http://india.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/07/04/indias-cabinet-passes-food-security-law/

THE HIMALAYAN TALK: PALASH BISWAS CRITICAL OF BAMCEF LEADERSHIP

[Palash Biswas, one of the BAMCEF leaders and editors for Indian Express spoke to us from Kolkata today and criticized BAMCEF leadership in New Delhi, which according to him, is messing up with Nepalese indigenous peoples also. He also flayed MP Jay Narayan Prasad Nishad, who recently offered a Puja in his New Delhi home for Narendra Modi's victory in 2014.]

THE HIMALAYAN DISASTER: TRANSNATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT MECHANISM A MUST

We talked with Palash Biswas, an editor for Indian Express in Kolkata today also. He urged that there must a transnational disaster management mechanism to avert such scale disaster in the Himalayas. http://youtu.be/7IzWUpRECJM

THE HIMALAYAN TALK: PALASH BISWAS LASHES OUT KATHMANDU INT'L 'MULVASI' CONFERENCE

अहिले भर्खर कोलकता भारतमा हामीले पलाश विश्वाससंग काठमाडौँमा आज भै रहेको अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय मूलवासी सम्मेलनको बारेमा कुराकानी गर्यौ । उहाले भन्नु भयो सो सम्मेलन 'नेपालको आदिवासी जनजातिहरुको आन्दोलनलाई कम्जोर बनाउने षडयन्त्र हो।' http://youtu.be/j8GXlmSBbbk

THE HIMALAYAN TALK: PALASH BISWAS LASHES OUT KATHMANDU INT'L 'MULVASI' CONFERENCE

अहिले भर्खर कोलकता भारतमा हामीले पलाश विश्वाससंग काठमाडौँमा आज भै रहेको अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय मूलवासी सम्मेलनको बारेमा कुराकानी गर्यौ । उहाले भन्नु भयो सो सम्मेलन 'नेपालको आदिवासी जनजातिहरुको आन्दोलनलाई कम्जोर बनाउने षडयन्त्र हो।' http://youtu.be/j8GXlmSBbbk

THE HIMALAYAN TALK: PALASH BISWAS BLASTS INDIANS THAT CLAIM BUDDHA WAS BORN IN INDIA

THE HIMALAYAN VOICE: PALASH BISWAS DISCUSSES RAM MANDIR

Published on 10 Apr 2013 Palash Biswas spoke to us from Kolkota and shared his views on Visho Hindu Parashid's programme from tomorrow ( April 11, 2013) to build Ram Mandir in disputed Ayodhya. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=77cZuBunAGk

THE HIMALAYAN TALK: PALSH BISWAS FLAYS SOUTH ASIAN GOVERNM

Palash Biswas, lashed out those 1% people in the government in New Delhi for failure of delivery and creating hosts of problems everywhere in South Asia. http://youtu.be/lD2_V7CB2Is

Palash Biswas on BAMCEF UNIFICATION!

THE HIMALAYAN TALK: PALASH BISWAS ON NEPALI SENTIMENT, GORKHALAND, KUMAON AND GARHWAL ETC.and BAMCEF UNIFICATION! Published on Mar 19, 2013 The Himalayan Voice Cambridge, Massachusetts United States of America

BAMCEF UNIFICATION CONFERENCE 7

Published on 10 Mar 2013 ALL INDIA BAMCEF UNIFICATION CONFERENCE HELD AT Dr.B. R. AMBEDKAR BHAVAN,DADAR,MUMBAI ON 2ND AND 3RD MARCH 2013. Mr.PALASH BISWAS (JOURNALIST -KOLKATA) DELIVERING HER SPEECH. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oLL-n6MrcoM http://youtu.be/oLL-n6MrcoM

Imminent Massive earthquake in the Himalayas

THE HIMALAYAN TALK: PALASH BISWAS CRITICIZES GOVT FOR WORLD`S BIGGEST BLACK OUT

THE HIMALAYAN TALK: PALASH BISWAS CRITICIZES GOVT FOR WORLD`S BIGGEST BLACK OUT

THE HIMALAYAN TALK: PALASH BISWAS TALKS AGAINST CASTEIST HEGEMONY IN SOUTH ASIA

Palash Biswas on Citizenship Amendment Act

Mr. PALASH BISWAS DELIVERING SPEECH AT BAMCEF PROGRAM AT NAGPUR ON 17 & 18 SEPTEMBER 2003 Sub:- CITIZENSHIP AMENDMENT ACT 2003 http://youtu.be/zGDfsLzxTXo

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Wednesday, October 1, 2014

মোহনবাগান ইস্টবেঙ্গল সহ চারটি ক্লাবের একাউন্ট সিজ নির্বাচনের আগে দশ সিন্দুক টাকার খোঁজে সিবিআই,মহিষাসুর বধেও নিস্তার নেই দেবির,সারদায় নিমজ্জিত বাঙালির ফুটবল পলাশ বিশ্বাস

মোহনবাগান ইস্টবেঙ্গল সহ চারটি ক্লাবের একাউন্ট সিজ

নির্বাচনের আগে দশ সিন্দুক টাকার খোঁজে সিবিআই,মহিষাসুর বধেও নিস্তার নেই দেবির,সারদায় নিমজ্জিত বাঙালির ফুটবল

পলাশ বিশ্বাস

মীডিয়ার খবরঃ



চার ক্লাব অ্যাকাউন্টে তালা ইডি-র, নিঝুম ময়দান

আনন্দবাজারঃএত দিন ক্লাবের কর্তাদের ডেকে হিসেব চাওয়ার মধ্যেই তদন্ত সীমাবদ্ধ ছিল। এ বার ইডি নিজেই সটান ঢুকে পড়ল ক্লাবের কোষাগারে! সোমবারই কিংফিশার ইস্টবেঙ্গল ক্লাবের ব্যাঙ্ক অ্যাকাউন্ট সিল করেছিল ইডি। মঙ্গলবার আরও তিনটি ক্লাব মোহনবাগান, ভবানীপুর এবং কালীঘাটের অ্যাকাউন্টও সিল করে দেওয়া হয়েছে বলে খবর। পুজোর ছুটি পড়ে যাওয়ায় ইডি-র অফিসাররা অনেকেই অবশ্য ছুটিতে চলে গিয়েছেন।

বিধানসভা ভোটের আগে ১০ স্যুটকেস, নজর সিবিআইয়ের

আনন্দবাজারঃশেয়ার কেলেঙ্কারির নায়ক হর্ষদ মেটার স্যুটকেস-কাণ্ড এক সময়ে তোলপাড় করেছিল দেশের রাজনীতি। খোদ হর্ষদের দাবি ছিল, স্যুটকেসে কোটি টাকা ভরে তিনি দিয়ে এসেছিলেন তৎকালীন প্রধানমন্ত্রী নরসিংহ রাওয়ের হাতে! ওই অভিযোগের অবশ্য প্রমাণ মেলেনি। প্রায় কুড়ি বছর পরে ফের স্যুটকেস-তদন্তে নেমেছে সিবিআই। তবে এ বার আর একটি নয়, দশ-দশটি স্যুটকেস ভর্তি টাকা নিয়ে শুরু হয়েছে তদন্ত। এ বার অভিযুক্তের তালিকায় রয়েছেন রাজ্য রাজনীতির অন্যতম শীর্ষ কয়েক জন নেতা।




কোলকাতার প্যান্ডেলে প্যান্ডেলে মানুষের ঢল

গৌরী সেনেরা জেলের অন্তরালে তবু মোত্সবে খামতি নেই

কিন্তু মহাবিপদ দেবির ঘনায়ে আসিছে

অবৈদিকী গপ্পো ও মিথকে আঁকড়ে গণসংহারের জয়গানে এই প্রথম সিবিআই হস্তক্ষেপ

মহিষাসুর বধ ত হচ্ছেি প্রতিক্ষণ৷

যাহারাই ক্ষমতার অন্নপ্রাশনে বাধ সাধিতেছে,তাহারাই মহিষাসুর,যেমন ইদানিং যাদবপুরের বিদ্রোহী পড়ুয়ারা.তাহাদের বধ না হইলে শাসন চলে না৤

কিন্তু মহিষাসুর বধেও যে দেবির নিস্তার নেই৷

সবে সপ্তমী,কিন্তু দেওয়াল লেখন উত্কন্ঠার জযগান৷

হাসপাতালে লম্বা লাইন৷

গোপন জবনাবন্দীতে কি যে হয়৷

ঢাকের বাদ্যিতে জেল খানার লৌহকপাটে প্রলয় বিস্ফোরণ৷

নির্বাচনের আগে দশ সিন্দুক টাকার খোঁজে সিবিআই,মহিষাসুর বধেও নিস্তার নেই দেবির,সারদায় নিমজ্জিত বাঙালির ফুটবল

সেপ্টেম্বর থেকে ভারতে শুরু হচ্ছে ফুটবলের 'ইন্ডিয়া সুপার লিগ', যেখানে কলকাতার দলটির সঙ্গে গাঁটছড়া বেঁধেছে স্পেনের এক নম্বর ক্লাব অ্যাটলেটিকো মাদ্রিদ৷ তাহলে বাঙালির প্রিয় ফুটবলও কি এবার বিদেশের মাটিতে যেতে পারবে?সে প্রশ্নের জবাব এখন ভবিষতের গর্ভে

রুদ্রপ্রসাদ সেনগুপ্ত অভিনীত নান্দীকারের ফুটবল নাটকটি বোধহয় আবার নূতন করে লিখতে হয়৷

বাঙালির ফুটবল উন্মাদনার ইতিহাস ঘেঁটে দেখা যায়, এর সূচনাটা ১৩৬ বছর আগে, পরাধীন ভারতে। শুরুটা করেছিলেন নগেন্দ্র প্রসাদ সর্বাধিকারী নামের এক বাঙালি ছাত্র, সেই ১৮৭৮ সালে।অবশ্য ক্রিকেটের কাছে ফুটবল তার সেই পুরনো জনপ্রিয়তা হারিয়ে ফেলেছে। বাংলাদেশের ক্রিড়াঙ্গনের সবচেয়ে বড় দুটি খেলার সামপ্রতিক অবস্থাটা এমনই।

কলকাতার কল্যাণে,চিটফান্ড প্রযোজনায় বাংলা ফিল্ম এবং ফুটবলের রমরমা।

ফিলিমের কুশীলবরা এখনো ধরা ছোঁযার বাইরে।

তবে পুজো মরশুমে,মোহনবাগান ইস্টবেঙ্গল সহ চারটি ক্লাবের একাউন্ট সিজ,তাহলে বাঙালির ফুটবলও সারদায় নিমজ্জিত কিনা ভাইব্যা বলুন।

প্রথম আলোয় লিখেছে বেশঃআরে, কবি গুরু রবীন্দ্রনাথ ফুটবল খেলা পছন্দ করতেন কি না, তার কোনো ঠিক আছে? - আরে না, উনি অবশ্যই পছন্দ করতেন। - তুই কীভাবে জানলি? - উনার একটা কবিতা আছে না 'বল দাও মোরে বল দাও...' আমার মনে হয় উনি ফুটবল খেলেছেনও এবং স্ট্রাইকার পজিশনে খেলেছেন। নইলে বল চাইবেন কেন?' -

খবরে প্রকাশ,সারদাকাণ্ডের ছায়া আরও দীর্ঘ হল ময়দানে। একাধিক ক্লাবের ভাঁড়ারেই এবার সরাসরি টান পড়তে চলেছে। তদন্তের জেরে ইষ্টবেঙ্গল ক্লাবের দুটি ব্যাঙ্ক অ্যাকাউন্ট সিল করল ইডি। মোহনবাগানের মূল অ্যাকাউন্টটিও সিল করার জন্য ব্যাঙ্ক কর্তৃপক্ষকে চিঠি পাঠানো হয়েছে বলে ইডি সূত্রের খবর। ইউনাইটেড ইস্টবেঙ্গল ফুটবল ক্লাবের নামে ওই দুটি অ্যাকাউন্ট ইডি সিল করায় ঘোর বিপাকে পড়েছেন ক্লাব কর্তারা।

কারণ, ওই অ্যাকাউন্টগুলি থেকেই ফুটবলারদের টাকা দেওয়া হয়। ফুটবল দলের যাবতীয় খরচও চলে। সেই দুটি অ্যাকাউন্ট ইডি সিল করে দেওয়ায় আজ জরুরি বৈঠকে বসেন ইস্টবেঙ্গল কর্তারা। সিদ্ধান্ত পুনর্বিবেচনার আর্জি জানিয়ে ক্লাবের তরফে ইডি দপ্তরে চিঠি পাঠানো হয়েছে।  ভবানীপুর এবং কালীঘাট  ক্লাবের অ্যাকাউন্ট সিল করার জন্যও ইডি সংশ্লিষ্ট ব্যাঙ্ক কর্তৃপক্ষকে চিঠি দিয়েছে বলে  জানা গেছে।

এদিকে, সারদা কনস্ট্রাকশন সংক্রান্ত মামলায় নয়া মোড়। সুদীপ্ত সেনের বিরুদ্ধে  বিশ্বাসভঙ্গের অভিযোগ আনতে এবার আদালতের দ্বারস্থ হল সিবিআই। এই মামলায় সুদীপ্ত সেনের বিরুদ্ধে ৪০২,১২০বি এবং ৪০৬ ধারায় আগেই অভিযোগ এনেছিল পুলিস। এবার তাঁর বিরুদ্ধে ৪০৯ ধারায় বিশ্বাসভঙ্গের অভিযোগ আনতে আলিপুর আদালতে আবেদন করল সিবিআই। জানা গেছে, ওই মামলায় চার্জশিট দেওয়ার জন্য বাড়তি সময় পেতেই এই সিদ্ধান্ত। কারণ, 409 ধারা যুক্ত করলে ওই মামলায় চার্জশিট পেশের সময়সীমা বেড়ে হবে নব্বই দিন। এই মামলায় সুদীপ্ত সেনকে ইতিমধ্যেই গ্রেফতার দেখিয়েছে সিবিআই।


এম পি এসের কর্ণধার প্রমথনাথ মান্না ও ডিরেক্টর প্রবীর চন্দকে ২৯ অক্টোবর পর্যম্ত জেল হাজতে পাঠাল বাঁকুড়া আদালত৷‌ তিন দিন পুলিস হেফাজতে থাকার পর মঙ্গলবার তাঁদের জুডিশিয়াল ম্যাজিস্ট্রেট (থার্ড কোর্ট) তনুশ্রী দত্তের এজলাসে তোলা হলে তিনি এই রায় দেন৷‌ প্রমথ মান্নার পক্ষের আইনজীবী অজিত আকুলি আদালতে বলেন, তাঁর প্রথম মক্কেল প্রমথ মান্না কৃষ্ণনগর আদালত থেকে একটি রায় পেয়েছেন, যাতে তাঁর সংস্হাকে চলতি বছরের নভেম্বর পর্যম্ত বাজার থেকে অর্থ সংগ্রহ করার অনুমতি দেওয়া হয়েছে৷‌ তিনি তাঁর দ্বিতীয় মক্কেল প্রবীর চন্দের প্রসঙ্গ টেনে বলেন, তাঁর বিরুদ্ধে কোনও আমানতকারীর অথবা এজেন্ট কোথাও কোনও অভিযোগ দায়ের করেননি৷‌ তাই তিনি উভয় মক্কেলের জামিনের আবেদন জানাচ্ছেন৷‌ বিচারক তাঁর আবেদন খারিজ করে দেন৷‌ এদিনও এজেন্ট ও আমানতকারীরা আদালতে ভিড় করেন৷‌ আদালতে তোলার সময় ও বাঁকুড়া জেলে নিয়ে যাওয়ার সময় তাঁরা গাড়ি ঘিরে প্রবল বিক্ষোভ দেখান৷‌ বাঁকুড়া আদালতে তাঁদের বিরুদ্ধে দুটি মামলা হয়েছে৷‌ ৩০ অক্টোবর দুটি মামলাতেই তাঁদের ফের আদালতে তোলা হবে৷‌ এদিনও আদালতে প্রমথ কোনও কথা বলেননি৷‌ সাংবাদিকদের বলেন, সেবি-র কাছে সমস্ত কাগজ জমা দেওয়া আছে৷‌

অগ্নি পান্ডেলিখেছেন আজকালেঃময়দানে এত বড় ধাক্কা এর আগে দেখা যায়নি৷‌ কলকাতা ময়দান তো বটেই, ভারতীয় ফুটবলের ইতিহাসেও আগে এমনটা দেখা যায়নি৷‌ কয়েক ঘণ্টার ব্যবধানে ময়দানের দুই বড় ক্লাবের ব্যাঙ্ক অ্যাকাউন্ট বন্ধ করার নির্দেশ জারি করল এনফোর্সমেন্ট ডিরেক্টরেট৷‌


সারদা-কাণ্ডের তদম্তে নামার পর ই ডি কর্তারা ময়দানের চারটি ক্লাবকে তলব করেছিল হিসেব দেখানোর জন্য৷‌ সেইমতো দুই বড় প্রধানের কর্তারা একাধিকবার ই ডি দপ্তরে গিয়ে হাজিরা দিয়ে এসেছিলেন৷‌ কিন্তু পঞ্চমীর রাত ও ষষ্ঠীর দুপুরে পরপর ই ডি-র তরফে ইস্টবেঙ্গল ও মোহনবাগানের ব্যাঙ্ক অ্যাকাউন্ট বন্ধ করার কথা জানিয়ে দেওয়া হল৷‌ ই ডি-র চিঠি ইতিমধ্যে সংশ্লিষ্ট দুই ক্লাবের ব্যাঙ্কে পাঠিয়ে দেওয়া হয়েছে৷‌ ইতিমধ্যে ইস্টবেঙ্গল ক্লাবের অ্যাক্সিস ব্যাঙ্কের দমদম শাখা ও টালিগঞ্জ শাখা ক্লাবকে ফোন করে জানিয়ে দিয়েছে৷‌ মোহনবাগানের যে অ্যাকাউন্টে ইউ বি-র টাকা থাকে, সেই অ্যাকাউন্টটি বন্ধের নির্দেশ জারি করা হয়েছে ই ডি-র তরফ থেকে৷‌ এর পরিপ্রেক্ষিতে মঙ্গলবারই এক লিখিত আবেদন পাঠানো হল ই ডি-র কাছে ইস্টবেঙ্গলের তরফে৷‌ গোটা বিষয়টা আরও একবার যেন বিবেচনা করা হয়৷‌ বাগান কর্তারা নিজেদের মধ্যে সপ্তমীর দিন মিটিংয়ে বসছেন বলে জানা গেছে৷‌ ইস্টবেঙ্গলও একই পথে হাঁটতে চলেছে৷‌


ময়দানের দুই বড় ক্লাবেরই স্পনসর ইউ বি গ্রুপ৷‌ কিংফিশার ইস্টবেঙ্গল ও ম্যাকডাওয়েল মোহনবাগানের যে কোম্পানি অ্যাকাউন্ট আছে, সেগুলোই বন্ধ করার আদেশ ই ডি-র৷‌ কারণ, ওই অ্যাকাউন্টে ৭৫ শতাংশ টাকা প্রধান স্পনসর ইউ বি-র হলেও, বাকি ২৫ শতাংশ টাকা ক্লাব দুটির৷‌ ই ডি সূত্রে খবর, সেই টাকার মধ্যেই সারদার কয়েক কোটি টাকা রয়েছে৷‌ সেই কারণে এমন সিদ্ধাম্ত৷‌ ইস্টবেঙ্গল, মোহনবাগানের পাশাপাশি কালীঘাট ও ভবানীপুরের ব্যাঙ্ক অ্যাকাউন্টও বন্ধ করার নির্দেশ দেওয়া হয়েছে ব্যাঙ্কগুলোকে৷‌ এই চারটি ক্লাবেরই সহ-স্পনসর ছিল সারদা, বিভিন্ন সময়ে৷‌ সারদা তদম্তে সি বি আই এবং ই ডি নামার পর ময়দানের এই চারটি ক্লাবকে তদম্তের জালে নিয়ে আসা হয়৷‌ বারবার দুই প্রধানের কর্তারা গিয়ে দেখা করেন ই ডি কর্তাদের সঙ্গে৷‌ নানান কাগজপত্রও দিয়ে আসেন বলে দাবি ক্লাবগুলোর৷‌ কিন্তু তার পর হঠাৎ কেন ই ডি এভাবে ব্যাঙ্ক অ্যাকাউন্ট বন্ধ করে দিল, তা বুঝতে পারছে না ক্লাবগুলো৷‌ পেছনে 'চক্রাম্তের' কথা বলছেন কর্তারা৷‌


মাথায় হাত পড়ে গেছে ইস্টবেঙ্গল কর্তাদের৷‌ যে দুটি অ্যাকাউন্ট বন্ধ করার নির্দেশ এসেছে, সেই অ্যাকাউন্ট থেকে ক্লাব ফুটবলারদের মাইনে দেয়৷‌ এমনকী মালিদেরও মাইনে দেওয়া হয়৷‌ সবচেয়ে বড় অ্যাকাউন্ট৷‌ সেই অ্যাকাউন্ট বন্ধ হওয়ার ফলে ফুটবলারদের কীভাবে মাইনে দেওয়া হবে তা নিয়ে জরুরি ভিত্তিতে মিটিংয়ে বসেন ক্লাব কর্তারা৷‌ ষষ্ঠীর দুপুরে লাল-হলুদ সচিব কল্যাণ মজুমদার, সহ-সচিব শাম্তিরঞ্জন দাশগুপ্ত, কার্যকরী সমিতির সদস্য ঋত্বিক দাস, কোষাধ্যক্ষ দেবু সমাদ্দার ও রাজা গুহরা জরুরি মিটিংয়ে বসেন৷‌ ইস্টবেঙ্গল সচিব কল্যাণ মজুমদার জানিয়েছেন, মঙ্গলবারই একটি লিখিত আবেদনপত্র পাঠানো হয়েছে ই ডি-কে৷‌ যেখানে বলা হয়েছে বিষয়টি আবার পুনর্বিবেচনা করার জন্য৷‌ সচিব কল্যাণ মজুমদারের বক্তব্য হল, 'আমাদের আবেদন করা ছাড়া এই মুহূর্তে কোনও উপায় নেই৷‌ সত্যি, বারবার আমাদের যাওয়ার পরও ই ডি কেন এমন সিদ্ধাম্ত নিল তা বুঝতে পারছি না৷‌ আমরা তদম্তে কোথাও অসহযোগিতা করিনি৷‌ সব সময় সাহায্য করেছি৷‌ এখন উৎসবের সময়৷‌ আগামী কাল থেকে দীর্ঘ ছুটি৷‌ জানি না আমরা কোথা থেকে কী করব৷‌ ব্যাঙ্ক অ্যাকাউন্টস বন্ধ করে দেওয়া হয়েছে৷‌ কোথা থেকে এবার আমরা ফুটবলারদের টাকা দেব? আমরা আরও আতঙ্কিত হতাম যদি সামনেই কোনও খেলা থাকত৷‌ তখনই ফুটবলারদের টাকা দিতে হত৷‌ সেটা না পারলে তার প্রভাব ম্যাচে পড়তে বাধ্য৷‌' ই ডি-কে লেখা চিঠিতে ইস্টবেঙ্গল জানিয়েছে, ক্লাব কোনও বাণিজ্যিক সংগঠন নয়৷‌ প্রায় ১০০ বছরের একটা সামাজিক সংগঠন৷‌ সুতরাং এটা বিবেচনা করে দেখা উচিত৷‌ লাল-হলুদ কর্তারা চিম্তিত বিদেশি ফুটবলারদের মাইনে দেওয়া নিয়েই৷‌ 'আমরা জানি না বিদেশিদের কীভাবে মাইনে দেব৷‌ বিদেশিরা টাকা না পেলে একবার যদি ফিফায় নালিশ করে, তা হলে সর্বনাশ হয়ে যাবে৷‌ ভারতীয় ফুটবলের বদনাম হবে৷‌ আবেদনপত্রে আমরা ই ডি ডিরেক্টরের কাছে সময় চেয়েছি৷‌ উনি যদি সময় দেন তা হলে তাঁর সঙ্গে আমরা গিয়ে সরাসরি কথা বলব৷‌' ইস্টবেঙ্গল সচিব সবচেয়ে বেশি ভয় পাচ্ছেন যাতে ডিফল্টার না হয়ে যায় ইস্টবেঙ্গল৷‌ 'দয়া করে আমাদের ডিফল্টার করবেন না৷‌ ইস্টবেঙ্গল ক্লাবের একটা সুনাম আছে৷‌ আমাদের ডিফল্টার করতে দেব না৷‌ যেভাবে হোক খুঁড়িয়ে খুঁড়িয়ে চলব৷‌' তার পরেই বলে ওঠেন ইস্টবেঙ্গল সচিব যে, 'কোনও রাজনৈতিক তকমা নেই বলেই বোধহয় আমাদের এই অবস্হা৷‌'


ব্যাঙ্ক মঙ্গলবার বন্ধ হয়ে যাওয়ার দরুন মোহনবাগান ক্লাবকে ফোন করে জানাতে পারেনি৷‌ ই ডি-র নির্দেশ পৌঁছে গেছে ব্যাঙ্কে৷‌ পুজোর পরেই ব্যাঙ্ক খুললেই অ্যাকাউন্ট বন্ধ হয়ে যাবে৷‌ বাগানের ব্যাঙ্ক অ্যাকাউন্টটিও অ্যাক্সিস ব্যাঙ্কের৷‌ মোহনবাগান সচিব অঞ্জন মিত্র বলেন, 'আমরা শুনেছি৷‌ এখনও ব্যাঙ্কের সরকারি ফোন পাইনি৷‌ পেলেই জরুরি ভিত্তিতে আমি কার্যকরী সমিতির সভা ডাকব৷‌ সেই সভায় যা সিদ্ধাম্ত নেওয়া হবে সেইমতো ব্যবস্হা নেওয়া হবে৷‌ তবে এই মুহূর্তে সিকিম গভর্নর্স গোল্ড কাপে আদৌ খেলতে যাওয়া হবে কি না, তা নিয়ে সন্দেহ আছে৷‌ চূড়াম্ত সিদ্ধাম্ত নেওয়া হয়নি৷‌' মুখে এ কথা বাগান-সচিব বললেও, বুধবার বাগানের শীর্ষ কর্তারা নিজেদের মধ্যে বৈঠক করবেন৷‌ ক্লাবের এক শীর্ষ কর্তা বলেই ফেললেন, 'সমস্যা ভয়ঙ্কর বাড়ল৷‌ জানি না কীভাবে ফুটবলারদের পেমেন্ট করা হবে৷‌ সত্যি ঘোরতর সঙ্কটে পড়লাম আমরা৷‌' অপর ক্লাব ভবানীপুরের কর্তা বিষ্ণু চক্রবর্তী জানিয়েছেন, 'অনেক দিন ধরেই শুনেছি ই ডি আমাদের ডাকবে৷‌ আমরা মানসিকভাবে তৈরি৷‌ কাগজপত্র নিয়ে চলে যাব৷‌' কালীঘাট ক্লাবের কর্তা বাবলু কোলের বক্তব্য হল, 'এখনও ফোন পাইনি৷‌ দেখা যাক কী করব৷‌ ক্লাবের বাকিদের সঙ্গে আলোচনা করে সিদ্ধাম্ত নেওয়া হবে৷‌' ইস্টবেঙ্গল সচিব জানিয়েছিলেন, প্রয়োজনে মোহনাবাগানের সঙ্গে ই ডি-র কাছে দরবার করতে রাজি৷‌ শুনে বাগান সচিব অঞ্জন মিত্র বলেন, 'এখনও কথা হয়নি৷‌ ইস্টবেঙ্গল জানালে নিশ্চয়ই ভেবে দেখব৷‌'


For PPP Gujarati Model,NO NGO Please! Ten Thousand NGOs to get their license cancelled! Modi invites American defence companies, Obamas to India Home Ministry Showcause Notices to Over 10,000 NGOs Palash Biswas

For PPP Gujarati Model,NO NGO Please! Ten Thousand NGOs to get their license cancelled!

Modi invites American defence companies, Obamas to India

Home Ministry Showcause Notices to Over 10,000 NGOs

Palash Biswas

Here you are!

Modi invites American defence companies to invest in India,that`s it what is defined as make in India,which task Dr.Manmohan Singh failed to accomplish and Modi finished it with surgical precision in his saffron Rockstar Avatar.


For my earlier Hindi post on hinduisation of corporate media,the Bajrangi brigade brands me anti development as well as anti national.They do brand Jansatta as yellow journalism for not any fault on its part,but it employed scriibes like us most disobedient to the system.Mind you,I do not waste space in my newspaper and independently address my readership on social media.


Eminent poet Pankaj Chaturvedi has felt the burn also as his post on Rajdeep Sardesai has drawn multimedia threatening to teach lessons to disobedient activists,writers and scribes.


Just awesome!

Ananatmurthi ji had not to migrate as MF Hussain had to do.He left this world for peace.


Festival season with triangular fascist imperialist flavour heralds total blackout of criticism of the hegemonial ruling saffron chemistry.Perhaps we may not survive the Lotus tsunami so violent with a meaningful Netanyahu Modi meeting followed by Indo US joint statement signed by mass destruction itself as Business after Agrarian India follows suit.


PMO has already invited projects to be funded by minimum PPP governance.

Now,the GOI has served notice to ten thousand NGOs why their license should not be cancelled.Personally,I am not charmed with NGO blitz.Rather I am against NGOs hijacking mass movement in India.NGOs tried to capture power during last elections and miserably failed.


But some NGOs are doing excellent job to protect green,civic and human rights,no doubt.Millions of young activists are attached with all kinds of NGOs and most of them are very very genuine activists.I stand with them always whatsoever may come!


On the other hand,quite amusing it may sound as reported in print media that  this could well be the beginning of a Sino-Japanese war on Indian soil. On a day when Chinese President Xi Jinping was shaking hands with Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Ahmedabad, a Japanese NGO was all set to deliver one of Modi's dreams- toilets.


The NGO, Dhillon Marty Foundation has chalked out a plan to construct cost effective toilets beginning from Amritsar and then spreading to rest of Punjab, Chandigarh and Haryana.


"The Foundation has chosen Amritsar since it is visited by over a lakh tourists including thousands of foreigners every day and when they go back they carry imprints of dirty India with them " said President of Foundation Sonia Dhillon while talking to TOI over phone from Tokyo on Wednesday.


Just read the Aman Sharma strory from New Delhi published in Economic Times:





MHA ASKS: Why licences should not be cancelled after they failed to file annual returns?

In a major crackdown, the Union Ministry of Home Affairs has sent show-cause notices in one go to over 10,000 non-governmental organisations, asking why their licenses should not be cancelled after they failed to file their annual returns of foreign receipts.

"The mandatory annual returns for the years 2009-2010, 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 have not been received from the associations whose names appear in the annexure. Notices are being sent to these associations by post at their known addresses," the Home Ministry said in a notice, listing out 10,331 NGOs.

NGOs that had filed returns should immediately furnish copies and proof of submission, the ministry said. Where returns have not been filed, the NGOs have been advised to immediately justify why their registration under the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act should not be cancelled.

The Home Ministry under Rajnath Singh has been serious about NGOs not filing their annual returns with the Centre. In a report earlier this year, the ministry said it was a "matter of concern" that 22,702 of the 43,527 registered NGOs under FCRA had not filed returns detailing receipts of foreign funds and how they were spent.

http://epaperbeta.timesofindia.com/Article.aspx?eid=31817&articlexml=Home-Ministry-Showcause-Notices-to-Over-10000-NGOs-01102014002023

Washington: Furthering Indo-US cooperation on terrorism, Prime Minister Narendra Modi and PresidentBarack Obama on Tuesday agreed to make "joint and concerted efforts" to dismantle safe havens for terror and criminal networks like LeT, JeM, D-company, al Qaeda and Haqqani network.

In their first Summit meeting spread over two hours at the White House, the two leaders also agreed that the two countries will take steps to disrupt financial and tactical support to these terror outfits. After the meeting between Modi and Obama, officials made it clear that India was not going to join "any coalition" in fight against terrorism in West Asia. Likewise, they clarified that a trilateral partnership agreed on Afghanistan, would be developmental in nature and not military cooperation.

They also said that the "joint and concerted efforts" on dismantling safe havens for terrorist groups and criminal networks do not mean that India and the US were not going to launch operations but carry out any UN-mandated task.

Modi and Obama, whose discussions covered a broad range of issues including cooperation in defence, security, energy economic and space, took a significant decision to break the impasse on implementation of civil nuclear deal.

"We are serious about resolving issues on both sides in civil nuclear energy cooperation. This is important to India for meeting energy security needs," Modi said.

An inter-agency contact group will be set up to address the issues of liability, administrative and technical issues. From the Indian side, agencies like DAE, MEA and Finance Ministry will be involved.

"We are setting up an inter-agency contact group to be able to resolve all issues that are outstanding and hindering the rapid deployment of US-origin nuclear reactors in India, that includes by liability, it includes administrative issues and it includes technical issues," Vikram Doraiswami, Joint Secretary (Americas), in the MEA, told reporters while briefing on the meeting between Modi and Obama.

Doraiswamy said while India was not going to join any coalition against terrorism, the two sides had agreed on the need to deal with "travellers of terrorism" -- radicalised people who travel for participating in terror activities in West Asia.

"This is a very major issue for us," he said.

On Afghanistan, Modi and Obama discussed the political, security and economic transition which is underway. "We continue to be very supportive of the transition process in Afghanistan," the Indian official said.

Holding that India and the US are natural global partners, the two countries extended defence cooperation for another 10 years. Modi invited US companies to participate in defence manufacturing sector in India, which has recently raised the FDI cap from 26 to 49 percent.

Expanding on the strategic partnership, Obama said India meets the standards of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) and is "now ready" for the membership of the elite Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), a 48-member body which controls global nuclear trade.

Obama also reaffirmed US support for India's membership of the expanded UN Security Council and backed it for "voice and vote" in international financial institutions like IMF and World Bank.

During the meeting, Modi asked Obama to take steps which would ensure easier access to Indian companies in services sector in the US markets.

Pledging to intensify cooperation in counter-terrorism and security, the two countries agreed to step up intelligence sharing.

The US will also cooperate as knowledge partner for India's planned National Defence University as well as technology partner in the Indian Navy.

The US will also participate in expansion of India's infrastructure projects.

The US will also be the lead partner in developing Allahabad, Ajmer and Vishakapatnam as 'Smart Cities'.

The two countries will also cooperate in the Mars Mission.

In the economic area, the two countries discussed FDI and portfolio investment and participation in Indian manufacturing sector, in tune with Modi's 'Make in India' campaign.

They also agreed on cooperation between their central banks on regulation of their financial institutions and cross-border banking arrangements.

The US will also participate in India's endeavour in the renewable energy sectory with one billion dollars being pledged by the EXIM bank.

The two sides also agreed to set up Water and Sanitation Alliance (WASH).Modi and Obama pledged to push the bilateral relationship to "new levels".

At a joint media appearance with Obama, Modi expressed the hope that India-US relations will make fast progress.

"Both of us are committed taking forward the civil nuclear partnership agreement. We are serious about resolving at the earliest issues relating to civil nuclear energy cooperation. This is important for India for meeting energy security needs," he said.

The Indo-US nuclear deal concluded between the previous Manmohan Singh government and the Bush Administration has been stalled because of issues relating to liabality laws.

Obama said India was emerging as a major power for peace and security in the region.

Both of them had a candid discussion about WTO issues. "India supports trade facilitation but it is my wish that a solution should take care of our food security concerns. I am sure that it is possible to do that early."

"I am looking forward to building up on relationship and make more progress," he said.

The President said the two leaders discussed various issues including trade and economic cooperation, cooperate in exploration of space and scientific developments especially to deal with challenges like Ebola. Obama said he was impressed by Modi's pro-poor policies and efforts to revitalise the Indian economy.

"Throughout this conversation, I`ve been impressed with the Prime Minister`s interest in not only addressing the needs of the poorest of the poor in India and revitalising the economy there but also its determination to make sure that India is serving as a major power that can help bring about peace and security for the entire world."

"So I want to wish him luck in what I`d sure will be a challenging but always interesting tenure as prime minister in India," Obama said.

"I'm very grateful for the friendship between the United States and India, and I'm looking forward to building on this meeting so that we can continue to promote progress in both countries and around the world."

Obama said the two leaders have had an outstanding discussion around a range of issues.

During our discussions, we reaffirmed that, as two of the world's largest democracies, vibrant people-to-people contacts between India and the United States, including an incredible Indian-American population that contributes so much, that we have so much in common it is critical for us to continue to deepen and broaden the existing framework of partnership and friendship that already exists, the President said.

On Monday night, during a private dinner, Obama said he and Modi spent most of their time talking about the economy.

"We agreed that, in both countries, one of our primary goals is to improve education and job training so that our young people can compete in the global marketplace."

"The Prime Minister shared with me his vision for lifting what is still too many Indians who are locked in poverty into a situation in which their lives can improve," he added.

Obama said they also time talking about the international situation and security issues.

"We addressed challenges in the Middle East and violent extremism and the fight against ISIL."

They also discussed issues of trade, and ?issues of making sure that maritime rules are observed.

And the two leaders discussed how they can continue to work together on a whole host of issues, from space exploration and scientific endeavor to dealing with humanitarian crises like Ebola in West Africa.

After their Summit talks, Modi was hosted a lunch by Vice President Joe Biden in which Secretary of State John Kerry was present.

Addressing the luncheon, Modi said India is committed to fulfilling the hopes and aspirations that the world, especially the US, has with regard to the country.



NGO Registration Methods - 1

1. Trust 2. Society, and 3. Non profit Company

In India non profit / public charitable organisations can be registered as trusts, societies, or a private limited non profit company, under section-25 companies. Non-profit organisations in India (a) exist independently of the state; (b) are self-governed by a board of trustees or 'managing committee'/ governing council, comprising individuals who generally serve in a fiduciary capacity; (c) produce benefits for others, generally outside the membership of the organisation; and (d), are 'non-profit-making', in as much as they are prohibited from distributing a monetary residual to their own members.


Section 2(15) of the Income Tax Act – which is applicable uniformly throughout the Republic of India – defines 'charitable purpose' to include 'relief of the poor, education, medical relief and the advancement of any other object of general public utility'. A purpose that relates exclusively to religious teaching or worship is not considered as charitable. Thus, in ascertaining whether a purpose is public or private, one has to see if the class to be benefited, or from which the beneficiaries are to be selected, constitute a substantial body of the public. A public charitable purpose has to benefit a sufficiently large section of the public as distinguished from specified individuals. Organisations which lack the public element – such as trusts for the benefit of workmen or employees of a company, however numerous – have not been held to be charitable. As long as the beneficiaries of the organisation comprise an uncertain and fluctuating body of the public answering a particular description, the fact that the beneficiaries may belong to a certain religious faith, or a sect of persons of a certain religious persuasion, would not affect the organisation's 'public' character.


Whether a trust, society or section-25 company, the Income Tax Act gives all categories equal treatment, in terms of exempting their income and granting 80G certificates, whereby donors to non-profit organisations may claim a rebate against donations made. Foreign contributions to non-profits are governed by FC(R)A regulations and the Home Ministry.

CAF would like to clarify that this material provides only broad guidelines and it is recommended that legal and or financial experts be consulted before taking any important legal or financial decision or arriving at any conclusion.


Formation and Registration of a Non -Profit organisations in India

1) Trust

2) Society

3) Section-25 Company  

Additional Licensing/ Registration


I. Trusts

A public charitable trust is usually floated when there is property involved, especially in terms of land and building.


Legislation : Different states in India have different Trusts Acts in force, which govern the trusts in the state; in the absence of a Trusts Act in any particular state or territory the general principles of the Indian Trusts Act 1882 are applied.


Main Instrument : The main instrument of any public charitable trust is the trust deed, wherein the aims and objects and mode of management (of the trust) should be enshrined. In every trust deed, the minimum and maximum number of trustees has to be specified. The trust deed should clearly spell out the aims and objects of the trust, how the trust should be managed, how other trustees may be appointed or removed, etc. The trust deed should be signed by both the settlor/s and trustee/s in the presence of two witnesses. The trust deed should be executed on non-judicial stamp paper, the value of which would depend on the valuation of the trust property.

Trustees : A trust needs a minimum of two trustees; there is no upper limit to the number of trustees. The Board of Management comprises the trustees.


Application for Registration :

The application for registration should be made to the official having jurisdiction over the region in which the trust is sought to be registered.


After providing details (in the form) regarding designation by which the public trust shall be known, names of trustees, mode of succession, etc., the applicant has to affix a court fee stamp of Rs.2/- to the form and pay a very nominal registration fee which may range from Rs.3/- to Rs.25/-, depending on the value of the trust property.


The application form should be signed by the applicant before the regional officer or superintendent of the regional office of the charity commissioner or a notary. The application form should be submitted, together with a copy of the trust deed.


Two other documents which should be submitted at the time of making an application for registration are affidavit and consent letter.


II. Society

According to section 20 of the Societies Registration Act, 1860, the following societies can be registered under the Act: 'charitable societies, military orphan funds or societies established at the several presidencies of India, societies established for the promotion of science, literature, or the fine arts, for instruction, the diffusion of useful knowledge, the diffusion of political education, the foundation or maintenance of libraries or reading rooms for general use among the members or open to the public, or public museums and galleries of paintings and other works of art, collection of natural history, mechanical and philosophical inventions, instruments or designs.'


Legislation : Societies are registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860, which is a federal act. In certain states, which have a charity commissioner, the society must not only be registered under the Societies Registration Act, but also, additionally, under the Bombay Public Trusts Act.

Main Instrument : The main instrument of any society is the memorandum of association and rules and regulations (no stamp paper required), wherein the aims and objects and mode of management (of the society) should be enshrined.


Trustees : A Society needs a minimum of seven managing committee members; there is no upper limit to the number managing committee members. The Board of Management is in the form of a governing body or council or a managing or executive committee


Application for Registration :

Registration can be done either at the state level (i.e., in the office of the Registrar of Societies) or at the district level (in the office of the District Magistrate or the local office of the Registrar of Societies).(2)


The procedure varies from state to state. However generally the application should be submitted together with: (a) memorandum of association and rules and regulations; (b) consent letters of all the members of the managing committee; (c) authority letter duly signed by all the members of the managing committee; (d) an affidavit sworn by the president or secretary of the society on non-judicial stamp paper of Rs.20-/, together with a court fee stamp; and (e) a declaration by the members of the managing committee that the funds of the society will be used only for the purpose of furthering the aims and objects of the society.


All the aforesaid documents which are required for the application for registration should be submitted in duplicate, together with the required registration fee. Unlike the trust deed, the memorandum of association and rules and regulations need not be executed on stamp paper.


III. Section-25 Company

According to section 25(1)(a) and (b) of the Indian Companies Act, 1956, a section-25 company can be established 'for promoting commerce, art, science, religion, charity or any other useful object', provided the profits, if any, or other income is applied for promoting only the objects of the company and no dividend is paid to its members.


Legislation : Section-25 companies are registered under section-25 of the Indian Companies Act. 1956.


Main Instrument : For a section-25 company, the main instrument is a Memorandum and articles of association (no stamp paper required)


Trustees : A section-25 Company needs a minimum of three trustees; there is no upper limit to the number of trustees. The Board of Management is in the form of a Board of directors or managing committee.


Application for Registration :

1.An application has to be made for availability of name to the registrar of companies, which must be made in the prescribed form no. 1A, together with a fee of Rs.500/-. It is advisable to suggest a choice of three other names by which the company will be called, in case the first name which is proposed is not found acceptable by the registrar.


2.Once the availability of name is confirmed, an application should be made in writing to the regional director of the company law board. The application should be accompanied by the following documents:

Three printed or typewritten copies of the memorandum and articles of association of the proposed company, duly signed by all the promoters with full name, address and occupation.


A declaration by an advocate or a chartered accountant that the memorandum and articles of association have been drawn up in conformity with the provisions of the Act and that all the requirements of the Act and the rules made thereunder have been duly complied with, in respect of registration or matters incidental or supplementary thereto.


Three copies of a list of the names, addresses and occupations of the promoters (and where a firm is a promoter, of each partner in the firm), as well as of the members of the proposed board of directors, together with the names of companies, associations and other institutions in which such promoters, partners and members of the proposed board of directors are directors or hold responsible positions, if any, with description of the positions so held.


A statement showing in detail the assets (with the estimated values thereof) and the liabilities of the association, as on the date of the application or within seven days of that date.

An estimate of the future annual income and expenditure of the proposed company, specifying the sources of the income and the objects of the expenditure.


A statement giving a brief description of the work, if any, already done by the association and of the work proposed to be done by it after registration, in pursuance of section-25.


A statement specifying briefly the grounds on which the application is made.


A declaration by each of the persons making the application that he/she is of sound mind, not an undischarged insolvent, not convicted by a court for any offence and does not stand disqualified under section 203 of the Companies Act 1956, for appointment as a director.

3.The applicants must also furnish to the registrar of companies (of the state in which the registered office of the proposed company is to be, or is situate) a copy of the application and each of the other documents that had been filed before the regional director of the company law board.


4.The applicants should also, within a week from the date of making the application to the regional director of the company law board, publish a notice in the prescribed manner at least once in a newspaper in a principal language of the district in which the registered office of the proposed company is to be situated or is situated and circulating in that district, and at least once in an English newspaper circulating in that district.


5.The regional director may, after considering the objections, if any, received within 30 days from the date of publication of the notice in the newspapers, and after consulting any authority, department or ministry, as he may, in his discretion, decide, determine whether the licence should or should not be granted.


6.The regional director may also direct the company to insert in its memorandum, or in its articles, or in both, such conditions of the licence as may be specified by him in this behalf.


IV. Special Licensing

In addition to registration, a non-profit engaged in certain activities might also require special license/permission. Some of these include (but are not limited to):


A place of work in a restricted area (like a tribal area or a border area requires a special permit – the Inner Line Permit – usually issues either by the Ministry of Home Affairs or by the relevant local authority (i.e., district magistrate).


To open an office and employ people, the NGO should be registered under the Shop and Establishment Act.


To employ foreign staff, an Indian non-profit needs to be registered as a trust/society/company, have FCRA registration and also obtain a No Objection Certificate. The intended employee also needs a work visa.


A foreign non-profit setting up an office in India and wanting staff from abroad needs to be registered as a trust/society/company, needs permission from the Reserve Bank of India and also a No Objection Certificate from the Ministry of External Affairs.

Comparision among Trust, Society and Non profit Company

Trust

Society

Section-25 Comapny

Statute/Legislation

Relevant State Trust Act or Bombay Public Trusts Act, 1950

Societies Registration Act, 1860

Indian Companies Act, 1956

Jurisdiction

Deputy Registrar/Charity commissioner

Registrar of societies (charity commissioner in Maharashtra).

Registrar of companies

Registration

As trust

As Society

In Maharashtra, both as a society and as a trust

As a company u/s 25 of the Indian Companies Act.

Registration Document

Trust deed

Memorandum of association and rules and regulations

Memorandum and articles of association. and regulations

Stamp Duty

Trust deed to be executed on non-judicial stamp paper, vary from state to state

No stamp paper required for memorandum of association and rules and regulations.

No stamp paper required for memorandum and articles of association.

Members Required

Minimum – two trustees. No upper limit.

Minimum – seven managing committee members. No upper limit.

Minimum three trustees. No upper limit.

Board of Management

Trustees / Board of Trustees

Governing body or council/managing or executive committee

Board of directors/ Managing committee

Mode of Succession on Board of Management

Appointment or Election

Appointment or Election by members of the general body

Election by members of the general body


Non-governmental organization

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"NGO" redirects here. For other uses, see NGO (disambiguation).
Valdis Dombrovskis, then Prime Minister of Latvia, meeting an NGO representative

non-governmental organization (NGO) is a term for an organization that is neither a part of a government nor a conventional for-profit business. Usually set up by ordinary citizens, NGOs may be funded by governments, foundations, businesses, or private persons. Some avoid formal funding altogether and are run primarily by volunteers. NGOs are highly diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, and take different forms in different parts of the world. Some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for political, religious or other interest groups.

The number of NGOs operating in the United States is estimated at 1.5 million.[1]Russia has 277,000 NGOs.[2] India is estimated to have had around 2 million NGOs in 2009, just over one NGO per 600 Indians, and many times the number of primary schools and primary health centres in India.[3][4]

NGOs are difficult to define, and the term 'NGO' is not used consistently. As a result, there are many different classifications in use. The most common focus is on 'orientation' and 'level of operation'. An NGO's orientation refers to the type of activities it takes on. These activities might include human rights, environmental, or development work. An NGO's level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as local, regional, national or international.[5]

The term "non-governmental organization" was first defined in 1945, when the United Nations (UN) was created. The UN, itself an inter-governmental organization, made it possible for certain approved specialized international non-state agencies—i.e., non-governmental organizations—to be awarded observer status at its assemblies and some of its meetings. Later the term became used more widely. Today, according to the UN, any kind of private organization that is independent from government control can be termed an "NGO", provided it is not-for-profit, non-criminal and not simply an opposition political party.

One characteristic these diverse organizations share is that their non-profit status means they are not hindered by short-term financial objectives. Accordingly, they are able to devote themselves to issues which occur across longer time horizons, such as climate change, malaria prevention or a global ban on landmines. Public surveys reveal that NGOs often enjoy a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful - but not always sufficient - proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders.[6]

Types[edit]

NGO/GRO (governmental related organisations) types can be understood by their orientation and level of operation.

By orientation[edit]

  • Charitable orientation often involves a top-down paternalistic effort with little participation by the "beneficiaries". It includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting the needs of the poor.
  • Service orientation includes NGOs with activities such as the provision of health, family planning or education services in which the programme is designed by the NGO and people are expected to participate in its implementation and in receiving the service.
  • Participatory orientation is characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved particularly in the implementation of a project by contributing cash, tools, land, materials, labour etc. In the classical community development project, participation begins with the need definition and continues into the planning and implementation stages.
  • Empowering orientation aims to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social, political and economic factors affecting their lives, and to strengthen their awareness of their own potential power to control their lives. There is maximum involvement of the beneficiaries with NGOs acting as facilitators.[7]

By level of operation[edit]

  • Community-based organizations (CBOs) arise out of people's own initiatives. They can be responsible for raising the consciousness of the urban poor, helping them to understand their rights in accessing needed services, and providing such services.
  • City-wide organizations include organizations such as chambers of commerce and industry, coalitions of business, ethnic or educational groups, and associations of community organizations.
  • National NGOs include national organizations such as the YMCAs/YWCAsprofessional associationsSamriddhi Foundation etc. Some have state and city branches and assist local NGOs.
  • International NGOs range from secular agencies such as Ducere Foundation and Save the Children organizations,OXFAM, CARE, Ford Foundation, and Rockefeller Foundation to religiously motivated groups. They can be responsible for funding local NGOs, institutions and projects and implementing projects.[7]

Apart from "NGO", there are many alternative or overlapping terms in use, including: third sector organization (TSO), non-profit organization (NPO), voluntary organization (VO), civil society organization (CSO), grassroots organization (GO), social movement organization (SMO), private voluntary organization (PVO), self-help organization (SHO) and non-state actors(NSAs).

Governmental related organizations / non-governmental organizations are a heterogeneous group. As a result, a long list of additional acronyms has developed, including:

  • BINGO: 'Business-friendly international NGO' or 'Big international NGO'
  • TANGO: 'Technical assistance NGO'
  • TSO: 'Third-sector organization'
  • GONGO: 'Government-operated NGOs' (set up by governments to look like NGOs in order to qualify for outside aid or promote the interests of government)
  • DONGO: 'Donor organized NGO'
  • INGO: 'International NGO'
  • QUANGO: 'Quasi-autonomous NGO,' such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). (The ISO is actually not purely an NGO, since its membership is by nation, and each nation is represented by what the ISO Council determines to be the 'most broadly representative' standardization body of a nation. That body might itself be a nongovernmental organization; for example, the United States is represented in ISO by the American National Standards Institute, which is independent of the federal government. However, other countries can be represented by national governmental agencies; this is the trend in Europe.)
  • National NGO: A non-governmental organization that exists only in one country. This term is rare due to the globalization of non-governmental organizations, which causes an NGO to exist in more than one country.[8]
  • CSO: 'Civil Society Organization'
  • ENGO: 'Environmental NGO,' such as Greenpeace and WWF
  • NNGO: 'Northern NGO'
  • PANGO: 'Party NGO,' set up by parties and disguised as NGOs to serve their political matters.
  • SNGO: 'Southern NGO'
  • SCO: 'Social change organization'
  • TNGO: 'Transnational NGO.' The term emerged during the 1970s due to the increase of environmental and economic issues in the global community. TNGO includes non-governmental organizations that are not confined to only one country, but exist in two or more countries.
  • GSO: Grassroots Support Organization
  • MANGO: 'Market advocacy NGO'
  • NGDO: 'Non-governmental development organization'

USAID refers to NGOs as private voluntary organizations. However, many scholars have argued that this definition is highly problematic as many NGOs are in fact state- or corporate-funded and -managed projects and have professional staff.[citation needed]

GRO/NGOs exist for a variety of reasons, usually to further the political or social goals of their members or founders. Examples include improving the state of the natural environment, encouraging the observance of human rights, improving the welfare of the disadvantaged, or representing a corporate agenda. However, there are a huge number of such organizations and their goals cover a broad range of political and philosophical positions. This can also easily be applied to private schools and athletic organizations.

Development, environment and human rights NGOs[edit]

NGOs are organizations that work in many different fields, but the term is generally associated with those seeking social transformation and improvements in quality of life. Development NGOs are the most highly visible sector, and includes both international and local organizations, as well as those working in humanitarian emergency sector. Many are associated with international aid and voluntary donation, but there are also NGOs that choose not to take funds from donors and try to generate funding in other ways, such as selling handicrafts or charging for services.

Environmental NGOs are another sub-sector, and sometimes overlap with development NGOs. An example is Greenpeace. (see: List of Environmental NGOs). Just like other NGOs networks, transnational environmental networks might acquire a variety of benefits in sharing information with other organizations, campaigning towards an issue, and exchanging contact information. Since transnational environmental NGOs advocate for different issues like public goods, such as pollution in the air, deforestation of areas and water issues, it is more difficult for them to give their campaigns a human face than NGOs campaigning directly for human rights issues.Some of the earliest forms of transnational environmental NGOs started to appear after the Second World War with the creation of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). After the UN was formed in 1945, more environmental NGO started to emerge in order to address more specific environmental issues.

In 1946, the UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was created with the purpose of advocating and representing scientific issues and collaboration among environmental NGOs. In 1969, the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) was funded to increase and improve collaboration among environmentalists. This collaboration was later reinforced and stimulated with the creation of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Program in 1971. In 1972, the UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm, tried to address the issues on Sweden's plead for international intervention on trans-boundary pollution from other European industrialized nations.

Transnational environmental NGOs have taken on diverse issues around the globe, but one of the best-known cases involving the work of environmental NGO's can be traced back to Brazil during the 1980s. The United States got involved with deforestation concerns due to the allegations of environmentalists dictating deforestation to be a global concern, and after 1977 the U.S. Foreign Assistance Act added an Environmental and Natural Resources section.

Human rights NGOs may also overlap with those in development, but are another distinct category. Amnesty International is perhaps one of the best-known.

During the early 1980s the Brazilian government created the Polonoreste developing program, which the World Bank agreed to finance. The Polonoreste program aimed at urbanizing areas of the Amazon, which were already occupied by local indigenous groups. Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon called the attention and intervention of UNESCO, who utilized its Program on Man and the Biosphere to advocate against the Polonoreste program, on the grounds of violating the rights of the indigenous groups living in the Amazon. In the case of deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon, the environment NGOs were able to put pressure on the World Bank to cancel the loans for the Polonoreste program. Due to the leverage that the U.S. has over the bank, in 1985 the World Bank suspended the financial aid to the Polonoreste Program. The work of environmental NGOs in the Brazilian case was successful because there was a point of leverage that made the targeted actor vulnerable to international pressure.[9]

Even though NGOs might have common goals relating to development or environment issues, interests and perspectives are diverse. A distinction can be made between the interests and goals among those NGOs located in industrialized countries—often referred to as the states of the North—and NGOs from nations located in developing countries—referred to as states of the South. There is sometimes tension between them. Southern states blame the developed nations for over-consumption and pollution resulting from industrialization, and for sustaining inequalities in the international economic system

There is also a distinction among groups that take on particular and specific socio-economic issues. The Women's Environment and Development Organization was created in 1990 with the purpose to advocate for gender inclusion in work related to the Earth Summit. Other groups might focus on issues that include racial minorities and individuals from lower income backgrounds.[10]

Track II diplomacy[edit]

Main article: Track II diplomacy

Track II dialogue, or Track II diplomacy, is a transnational coordination that involves non-official members of the government including epistemic communities as well as former policy-makers or analysts. Track II diplomacy aims to get policymakers and policy analysts to come to a common solution through discussions by unofficial figures of the government. Unlike the Track I diplomacy where government officials, diplomats and elected leaders gather to talk about certain issues, Track II diplomacy consists of experts, scientists, professors and other figures that are not involved in government affairs. The members of Track II diplomacy usually have more freedom to exchange ideas and come up with compromise on their own.

Activities[edit]

There are also numerous classifications of NGOs. The typology the World Bank uses divides them into Operational and Advocacy:[11]

NGOs vary in their methods. Some act primarily as lobbyists, while others primarily conduct programs and activities. For instance, an NGO such as Oxfam, concerned with poverty alleviation, might provide needy people with the equipment and skills to find food and clean drinking water, whereas an NGO like the FFDA helps through investigation and documentation of human rights[citation needed] violations and provides legal assistance to victims of human rights abuses. Others, such asAfghanistan Information Management Services, provide specialized technical products and services to support development activities implemented on the ground by other organizations.

NGOs were intended to fill a gap in government services, but in countries like India and China, NGOs are slowly gaining a position in decision making. In the interest of sustainability, most donors require that NGOs demonstrate a relationship with governments.[12] State Governments themselves are vulnerable because they lack economic resources, and potentially strategic planning and vision. They are therefore sometimes tightly bound by a nexus of NGOs, political bodies, commercial organizations and major donors/funders, making decisions that have short term outputs but no long term affect.[13] In India, for instance, NGOs are under regulated, political, and recipients of large government and international donor funds. NGOs often take up responsibilities outside their skill ambit. Governments have no access to the number of projects or amount of funding received by these NGOs. There is a pressing need to regulate this group while not curtailing their unique role as a supplement to government services.

Operational[edit]

Operational NGOs seek to "achieve small-scale change directly through projects."[8] They mobilize financial resources, materials and volunteers to create localized programs in the field. They hold large-scale fundraising events, apply to governments and organizations for grants and contracts in order to raise money for projects. They often operate in a hierarchical structure; with a main headquarters staffed by professionals who plan projects, create budgets, keep accounts, report, and communicate with operational fieldworkers who work directly on projects[8] Operational NGOs deal with a wide range of , but are most often associated with the delivery of services and welfare, emergency relief and environmental issues. Operational NGOs can be further categorized, one frequently used categorization is the division into relief-oriented versus development-oriented organizations; they can also be classified according to whether they stress service delivery or participation; or whether they are religious or secular; and whether they are more public or private-oriented. Operational NGOs can be community-based, national or international. The defining activity of operational NGOs is implementing projects.[8]

Campaigning[edit]

Campaigning NGOs seek to "achieve large-scale change promoted indirectly through influence of the political system."[8]Campaigning NGOs need an efficient and effective group of professional members who are able to keep supporters informed, and motivated. They must plan and host demonstrations and events that will keep their cause in the media. They must maintain a large informed network of supporters who can be mobilized for events to garner media attention and influence policy changes. The defining activity of campaigning NGOs is holding demonstrations.[8] Campaigning NGOs often deal with this issues relating to human rights, women's rights, children's rights. The primary purpose of an Advocacy NGO is to defend or promote a specific cause. As opposed to operational project management, these organizations typically try to raise awareness, acceptance and knowledge by lobbying, press work and activist event.

Both operational and campaigning[edit]

It is not uncommon for NGOs to make use of both activities. Many times, operational NGOs will use campaigning techniques if they continually face the same issues in the field that could be remedied through policy changes. At the same time, Campaigning NGOs, like human rights organizations often have programs that assist the individual victims they are trying to help through their advocacy work.[8]

Public relations[edit]

Non-governmental organizations need healthy relationships with the public to meet their goals. Foundations and charities use sophisticated public relations campaigns to raise funds and employ standard lobbying techniques with governments. Interest groups may be of political importance because of their ability to influence social and political outcomes. A code of ethics was established in 2002 by The World Association of Non Governmental Organizations.

Project management[edit]

There is an increasing awareness that management techniques are crucial to project success in non-governmental organizations.[14] Generally, non-governmental organizations that are private have either a community or environmental focus. They address varieties of issues such as religion, emergency aid, or humanitarian affairs. They mobilize public support and voluntary contributions for aid; they often have strong links with community groups in developing countries, and they often work in areas where government-to-government aid is not possible. NGOs are accepted as a part of the international relations landscape, and while they influence national and multilateral policy-making, increasingly they are more directly involved in local action.

Corporate structure[edit]

Staffing[edit]

Some NGOs are highly professionalized and rely mainly on paid staff. Others are based around voluntary labour and are less formalized. Not all people working for non-governmental organizations are volunteers.

Many NGOs are associated with the use of international staff working in 'developing' countries, but there are many NGOs in both North and South who rely on local employees or volunteers. There is some dispute as to whether expatriates should be sent to developing countries. Frequently this type of personnel is employed to satisfy a donor who wants to see the supported project managed by someone from an industrialized country. However, the expertise of these employees or volunteers may be counterbalanced by a number of factors: the cost of foreigners is typically higher, they have no grassroot connections in the country they are sent to, and local expertise is often undervalued.[11]

The NGO sector is an essential employer in terms of numbers.[citation needed] For example, by the end of 1995, CONCERN worldwide, an international Northern NGO working against poverty, employed 174 expatriates and just over 5,000 national staff working in ten developing countries in Africa and Asia, and in Haiti.

Funding[edit]

Whether the NGOs are small or large, various NGOs need budgets to operate. The amount of budget that they need would differ from NGOs to NGOs. Unlike small NGOs, large NGOs may have annual budgets in the hundreds of millions or billions of dollars. For instance, the budget of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) was over US$540 million in 1999.[15]Funding such large budgets demands significant fundraising efforts on the part of most NGOs. Major sources of NGO funding are membership dues, the sale of goods and services, grants from international institutions or national governments, and private donations. Several EU-grants provide funds accessible to NGOs.

Even though the term "non-governmental organization" implies independence from governments, many NGOs depend heavily on governments for their funding.[16] A quarter of the US$162 million income in 1998 of the famine-relief organization Oxfamwas donated by the British government and the EU. The Christian relief and development organization World Vision United States collected US$55 million worth of goods in 1998 from the American government.

Government funding of NGOs is controversial, since, according to David Rieff, writing in The New Republic, "the whole point of humanitarian intervention was precisely that NGOs and civil society had both a right and an obligation to respond with acts of aid and solidarity to people in need or being subjected to repression or want by the forces that controlled them, whatever the governments concerned might think about the matter."[17] Some NGOs, such as Greenpeace do not accept funding from governments or intergovernmental organizations.[18][19]

Overhead costs[edit]

Overhead is the amount of money that is spent on running an NGO rather than on projects.[20] This includes office expenses,[20] salaries, banking and bookkeeping costs. What percentage of overall budget is spent on overhead is often used to judge an NGO with less than 4% being viewed as good.[20] The World Association of Non-Governmental Organizations states that ideally more than 86% should be spent on programs (less than 20% on overhead).[21] The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has specific guidelines on how high overhead can be to receive funding based on how the money is to be spent with overhead often needing to be less than 5-7%.[22] While the World Bank typically allows 37%.[23] A high percentage of overhead to total expenditures can make it more difficult to generate funds.[24] High overhead costs may also generate criticism with some claiming the certain NGOs with high overhead are being run simply to benefit the people working for them.[25]

While overhead costs can be a legitimate concern, a sole focus on them can be counterproductive.[26] Research published by the Urban Institute and the Center for Social Innovation at Stanford University have shown how rating agencies create incentives for nonprofits to lower and hide overhead costs, which may actually reduce organizational effectiveness by starving organizations of the infrastructure they need to effectively deliver services. A more meaningful rating system would provide, in addition to financial data, a qualitative evaluation of an organization's transparency and governance: (1) an assessment of program effectiveness; (2) and an evaluation of feedback mechanisms designed for donors and beneficiaries; and (3) such a rating system would also allow rated organizations to respond to an evaluation done by a rating agency.[27] More generally, the popular discourse of nonprofit evaluation should move away from financial notions of organizational effectiveness and toward more substantive understandings of programmatic impact.

Monitoring and control[edit]

In a March 2000 report on United Nations Reform priorities, former U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan wrote in favor of international humanitarian intervention, arguing that the international community has a "right to protect"[28] citizens of the world against ethnic cleansing, genocide, and crimes against humanity. On the heels of the report, the Canadian government launched the Responsibility to Protect R2P[29] project, outlining the issue of humanitarian intervention. While the R2P doctrine has wide applications, among the more controversial has been the Canadian government's use of R2P to justify its intervention and support of the coup in Haiti.[30] Years after R2P, the World Federalist Movement, an organization which supports "the creation of democratic global structures accountable to the citizens of the world and call for the division of international authority among separate agencies", has launched Responsibility to Protect - Engaging Civil Society (R2PCS). A collaboration between the WFM and the Canadian government, this project aims to bring NGOs into lockstep with the principles outlined under the original R2P project.

The governments of the countries an NGO works or is registered in may require reporting or other monitoring and oversight. Funders generally require reporting and assessment, such information is not necessarily publicly available. There may also be associations and watchdog organizations that research and publish details on the actions of NGOs working in particular geographic or program areas.[citation needed]

In recent years, many large corporations have increased their corporate social responsibility departments in an attempt to preempt NGO campaigns against certain corporate practices. As the logic goes, if corporations work with NGOs, NGOs will not work against corporations. Greater collaboration between corporations and NGOs creates inherent risks of co-optation for the weaker partner, typically the nonprofit involved.[31]

In December 2007, The United States Department of Defense Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) S. Ward Casscells established an International Health Division under Force Health Protection & Readiness.[32] Part of International Health's mission is to communicate with NGOs in areas of mutual interest. Department of Defense Directive 3000.05,[33] in 2005, requires DoD to regard stability-enhancing activities as a mission of importance equal to combat. In compliance withinternational law, DoD has necessarily built a capacity to improve essential services in areas of conflict such as Iraq, where the customary lead agencies (State Department and USAID) find it difficult to operate. Unlike the "co-option" strategy described for corporations, the OASD(HA) recognizes the neutrality of health as an essential service. International Health cultivates collaborative relationships with NGOs, albeit at arms-length, recognizing their traditional independence, expertise and honest broker status. While the goals of DoD and NGOs may seem incongruent, the DoD's emphasis on stability and security to reduce and prevent conflict suggests, on careful analysis, important mutual interests.

History[edit]

International non-governmental organizations have a history dating back to at least 1839.[34] It has been estimated that by 1914, there were 1083 NGOs.[35] International NGOs were important in the anti-slavery movement and the movement forwomen's suffrage, and reached a peak at the time of the World Disarmament Conference.[36] However, the phrase "non-governmental organization" only came into popular use with the establishment of the United Nations Organization in 1945 with provisions in Article 71 of Chapter 10 of the United Nations Charter[37] for a consultative role for organizations which are neither governments nor member states—see Consultative Status. The definition of "international NGO" (INGO) is first given in resolution 288 (X) of ECOSOC on February 27, 1950: it is defined as "any international organization that is not founded by an international treaty". The vital role of NGOs and other "major groups" in sustainable development was recognized in Chapter 27[38] of Agenda 21, leading to intense arrangements for a consultative relationship between the United Nations and non-governmental organizations.[39] It has been observed that the number of INGO founded or dissolved matches the general "state of the world", rising in periods of growth and declining in periods of crisis.[40]

Rapid development of the non-governmental sector occurred in western countries as a result of the processes of restructuring of the welfare state. Further globalization of that process occurred after the fall of the communist system and was an important part of the Washington consensus.[16]

Globalization during the 20th century gave rise to the importance of NGOs. Many problems could not be solved within a nation. International treaties and international organizations such as the World Trade Organization were centered mainly on the interests of capitalist enterprises. In an attempt to counterbalance this trend, NGOs have developed to emphasizehumanitarian issuesdevelopmental aid and sustainable development. A prominent example of this is the World Social Forum, which is a rival convention to the World Economic Forum held annually in January in DavosSwitzerland. The fifth World Social Forum in Porto AlegreBrazil, in January 2005 was attended by representatives from more than 1,000 NGOs.[41] In terms of environmental issues and sustainable development, the Earth Summit in Rio in 1992 was the first to show the power of international NGOs, when about 2,400 representatives of NGOs came to play a central role in deliberations. Some have argued that in forums like these, NGOs take the place of what should belong to popular movements of the poor. Whatever the case, NGO transnational networking is now extensive.[42]

Legal status[edit]

The legal form of NGOs is diverse and depends upon homegrown variations in each country's laws and practices. However, four main family groups of NGOs can be found worldwide:[43]

The Council of Europe in Strasbourg drafted the European Convention on the Recognition of the Legal Personality of International Non-Governmental Organizations in 1986, which sets a common legal basis for the existence and work of NGOs in Europe. Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights protects the right to freedom of association, which is also a fundamental norm for NGOs.

Critiques[edit]

Issa G. Shivji is one of Africa's leading experts on law and development issues as an author and academic. His critique on NGOs is found in two essays: "Silences in NGO discourse: The role and future of NGOs in Africa" and "Reflections on NGOs in Tanzania: What we are, what we are not and what we ought to be". Shivji argues that despite the good intentions of NGO leaders and activists, he is critical of the "objective effects of actions, regardless of their intentions".[44] Shivji argues also that the sudden rise of NGOs are part of a neoliberal paradigm rather than pure altruistic motivations. He is critical of the current manifestations of NGOs wanting to change the world without understanding it, and that the imperial relationship continues today with the rise of NGOs.

James Pfeiffer, in his case study of NGO involvement in Mozambique, speaks to the negative effects that NGO's have had on areas of health within the country. He argues that over the last decade, NGO's in Mozambique have "fragmented the local health system, undermined local control of health programs, and contributed to growing local social inequality"[45]

He notes further that NGO's can be uncoordinated, creating parallel projects among different organizations, that pull health service workers away from their routine duties in order to serve the interests of the NGO's. This ultimately undermines local primary health care efforts, and takes away the governments' ability to maintain agency over their own health sector.[46] J. Pfeiffer suggested a new model of collaboration between the NGO and the DPS (the Mozambique Provincial Health Directorate). He mentioned the NGO should be 'formally held to standard and adherence within the host country', for example reduce 'showcase' projects and parallel programs that proves to be unsustainable.[47]

Jessica Mathews wrote in Foreign Affairs in 1997: "For all their strengths, NGOs are special interests. The best of them ... often suffer from tunnel vision, judging every public act by how it affects their particular interest".[48] Since NGOs have to worry about policy trade-offs, the overall impact of their cause might bring more harm to society.[49]

Vijay Prashad argues that from the 1970s "The World Bank, under Robert McNamara, championed the NGO as an alternative to the state, leaving intact global and regional relations of power and production."[50]

Others argue that NGOs are often imperialist[51] in nature, that they sometimes operate in a racialized manner in third worldcountries, and that they fulfill a similar function to that of the clergy during the high colonial era. The philosopher Peter Hallward argues that they are an aristocratic form of politics.[52] He also points to the fact that NGOs like Action Aid andChristian Aid "effectively condoned the [2004 US backed] coup" against an elected government in Haiti and argues that they are the "humanitarian face of imperialism."[53] Popular movements in the global South such as the Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign in South Africa have sometimes refused to work with NGOs arguing that this will compromise their autonomy.[54][55]It has also been argued that NGOs often disempower people by allowing funders to push for stability over social justice.[56]

Another criticism of NGOs is that they are being designed and used as extensions of the normal foreign-policy instruments of certain Western countries and groups of countries.[57] Russian President Vladimir Putin made this accusation at the 43rdMunich Conference on Security Policy in 2007, concluding that these NGOs "are formally independent but they are purposefully financed and therefore under control."[58] Also, Michael Bond wrote "Most large NGOs, such as Oxfam, the Red Cross, Cafod and Action Aid, are striving to make their aid provision more sustainable. But some, mostly in the US, are still exporting the ideologies of their backers."[59]

NGOs have also been accused of using white lies or misinformed advise to enact their campaigns, i.e., accusations that NGOs have been ignorant about critical issues because, as chief scientist at Greenpeace Doug Parr said, these organizations appear to have lost their efforts in being truly scientific and now seem to be more self-interested. Rather than operating through science so as to be rationally and effectively practical, NGOs have been accused of abusing the utilization of science to gain their own advantages. In the beginning, as Parr indicated, there was "a tendency among our critics to say that science is the only decision-making tool ... but political and commercial interests are using science as a cover for getting their way."[60]At the same time, NGOs can appear to not be cooperative with other groups, according to the previous policy-maker for the German branch of Friends of the Earth, Jens Katjek. "If NGOs want the best for the environment, he says, they have to learn to compromise."[61]

Challenges to legitimacy[edit]

The issue of the legitimacy of NGOs raises a series of important questions. This is one of the most important assets possessed by an NGO, it is gained through a perception that they are an "independent voice".[62][63] Their representation also emerges as an important question. Who bestows responsibilities to NGOs or INGOs and how do they gain the representation of citizens and civil society is still not scrutinized thoroughly. For instance, in the article, it is stated, "To put the point starkly: are the citizens of countries of the South and their needs represented in global civil society, or are citizens as well as their needs constructed by practices of representation? And when we realize that INGOs hardly ever come face to face with the people whose interests and problems they represent, or that they are not accountable to the people they represent, matters become even more troublesome."[64]

Moreover, the legitimacy and the accountability of NGOs on the point of their true nature are also emerging as important issues.[65] Various perceptions and images on NGOs are provided, and usually implemented in an image as 'non-state actors' or 'influential representatives of civil society that advocate the citizen.' Accountability may be able to provide this and also be able to assist activities by providing focus and direction[66] As non-state actors with considerable influence over the governance in many areas, concerns have been expressed over the extent to which they represent the views of the public and the extent to which they allow the public to hold them to account.[67]

The origin of funding can have serious implications for the legitimacy of NGOs. In recent decades NGOs have increased their numbers and range of activities to a level where they have become increasingly dependent on a limited number of donors.[67]Consequently competition has increased for funding, as have the expectations of the donors themselves.[68] This runs the risk of donors adding conditions which can threaten the independence of NGOs; for example, an over-dependence on official aid has the potential to dilute "the willingness of NGOs to speak out on issues which are unpopular with governments".[63] In these situations NGOs are being held accountable by their donors, which can erode rather than enhance their legitimacy, a difficult challenge to overcome. Some commentators have also argued that the changes in NGO funding sources has ultimately altered their functions.[63][69][70]

NGOs have also been challenged on the grounds that they do not necessarily represent the needs of the developing world, through diminishing the so-called "Southern Voice". Some postulate that the North–South divide exists in the arena of NGOs.[71] They question the equality of the relationships between Northern and Southern parts of the same NGOs as well as the relationships between Southern and Northern NGOs working in partnerships. This suggests a division of labour may develop, with the North taking the lead in advocacy and resource mobilisation whilst the South engages in service delivery in the developing world.[71] The potential implications of this may mean the needs of the developing world are not addressed appropriately as Northern NGOs do not properly consult or participate in partnerships. The real danger in this situation is that western views may take the front seat and assign unrepresentative priorities.[72]

The flood of NGOs has also been accused of damaging the public sector in multiple developing countries, e.g. accusations that NGO mismanagement has resulted in the breakdown of public health care systems. Instead of promoting equity and alleviating poverty, NGOs have been under scrutiny for contributing to socioeconomic inequality and disempowering services in the public sector of third world countries.[73][74]

The scale and variety of activities in which NGOs participate has grown rapidly since the 1980s, witnessing particular expansion in the 1990s.[75] This has presented NGOs with a need to balance the pressures of centralisation and decentralisation. By centralising NGOs, particularly those that operate at an international level, they can assign a common theme or set of goals. Conversely it may also be advantageous to decentralise as this can increase the chances of an NGO responding more flexibly and effectively to localised issues by implementing projects which are modest in scale, easily monitored, produce immediate benefits and where all involved know that corruption will be punished.[74][76]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  32. Jump up^ http://www.ha.osd.mil/FHPR/default.cfm
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  45. Jump up^ Pfeiffer, J. 2003. International NGOs and primary health care in Mozambique: the need for a new model of collaboration. Social Science & Medicine 56 (4):725.
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  55. Jump up^ Ashraf Cassiem: South African Resistance Against Evictions, Marlon Crump, Poor Magazine, 2009
  56. Jump up^ Are NGOs enemies of SA's rural folk?, Youlendree Appasamy, Grocott's Mail, July 2013
  57. Jump up^ 'NGO': The Guise of Innocence, by Jenny O'Connor,New Left Project, 2012
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  59. Jump up^ Bond, Michael. "The Backlash against NGOs." Prospect, April 2000, pp.321. Print
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  62. Jump up^ Weber, N. and Christopherson, T. (2002) The influence of non-givernmental organisations on the creation of Natura 2000 during the European policy process. Forest policy and Economics. 4(1), pp. 1-12.
  63. Jump up to:a b c Edwards, M. and Hulme, D. (2002) NGO Performance and Accountability: Introduction and Overview. "In: Edwards, M. and Hulme, D., ed. 2002." The Earthscan Reader on NGO Management. UK: Earthscan Publications Ltd. Chapter 11.
  64. Jump up^ Neera Chandhoke. (2005) "How Global Is Global Civil Society?" Journal of World-Systems Research, 11, 2, 2005, pp.326-327.
  65. Jump up^ Hasmath, R. and Hsu, J. (2008) "NGOs in China: Issues of Good Governance and Accountability", Asia Pacific Journal of Public Administration 30(1): 1-11.
  66. Jump up^ Edwards, M. and Hulme, D. (2002) Beyond the Magic Bullet? Lessons and Conclusions. "In: Edwards, M. and Hulme, D., ed. 2002." The Earthscan Reader on NGO Management. UK: Earthscan Publications Ltd. Chapter 12.
  67. Jump up to:a b Edwards, M. and Hulme, D. (1996) Too Close for comfort? The impact of official aid on Non-Governmental Organisations. "World Development." 24(6), pp. 961-973.
  68. Jump up^ Ebrahim, A. (2003) Accountability in practice: Mechanisms for NGOs. "World Development." 31(5), pp.813-829.
  69. Jump up^ Brought to You by Wall Street, CORY MORNINGSTAR,CounterPunch, 2013.05.17
  70. Jump up^ The Climate Wealth Opportunists, CORY MORNINGSTAR, CounterPunch, 2014.03.14
  71. Jump up to:a b Lindenberg, M. and Bryant, C. (2001) Going Global: Transforming Relief and Development NGOs. Bloomfield: Kumarian Press.
  72. Jump up^ Jenkins, R. (2001) Corporate Codes of Conduct: Self-Regulation in a Global Economy. "Technology, Business and Society Programme Paper Number 2." United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.
  73. Jump up^ Pfeiffer, J. 2003. International NGOs and primary health care in Mozambique: the need for a new model of collaboration. Social Science & Medicine 56(4):725-738.
  74. Jump up to:a b How NGOs Failed AfghanistanPatrick Cockburn,CounterPunch, 2014.03.25
  75. Jump up^ Avina, J. (1993) The Evolutionary Life Cycles if Non-Governmental Development Organisations. "Public Administration and Development." 13(5), pp. 453-474.
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Further reading[edit]

  • Susan Cotts Watkins, Ann Swidler, and Thomas Hannan. 2012. "Outsourcing Social Transformation: Development NGOs as Organizations." Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 38, pp. 285–315, PDF
  • Velusamy M. Non Governmental Organisation, Dominant Publishers & Distribution Ltd, New Delhi
  • Mark Butler, with Thulani Ndlazi, David Ntseng, Graham Philpott, and Nomusa Sokhela. NGO Practice and the Possibility of FreedomChurch Land Programme, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa 2007 Churchland.co.za[dead link]
  • Olivier Berthoud, NGOs: Somewhere between Compassion, Profitability and Solidarity Envio.org.ni, PDF Edinter.net Envio, Managua, 2001
  • Terje Tvedt, 19982/2003: Angels of Mercy or Development Diplomats. NGOs & Foreign Aid, Oxford: James Currey
  • Steve W. Witt, ed. Changing Roles of NGOs in the Creation, Storage, and Dissemination of Information in Developing Countries (Saur, 2006). ISBN 3-598-22030-8
  • Cox, P. N. Shams, G. C. Jahn, P. Erickson and P. Hicks. 2002. Building collaboration between NGOs and agricultural research iNGOs – Die Gewerkschaften in Guinea während der Unruhen 2007] – EPU Research Papers: Issue 03/07, Stadtschlaining 2007 (German)
  • Lyal S. Sunga, "Dilemmas facing INGOs in coalition-occupied Iraq", in Ethics in Action: The Ethical Challenges of International Human Rights Nongovernmental Organizations, edited by Daniel A. Bell and Jean-Marc Coicaud, Cambridge Univ. and United Nations Univ. Press, 2007.
  • Lyal S. Sunga, "NGO Involvement in International Human Rights Monitoring, International Human Rights Law and Non-Governmental Organizations" (2005) 41-69.
  • Werker & Ahmed (2008): What do Non-Governmental Organizations do?
  • Steve Charnovitz, "Two Centuries of Participation: NGOs and International Governance," Michigan Journal of International Law, Vol. 18, Winter 1997, at 183-286.
  • Abahlali baseMjondolo Rethinking Public Participation from Below, 'Critical Dialogue', 2006
  • Akpan S. M (2010): Establishment of Non-Governmental Organizations (In Press).
  • Edward A. L. Turner (2010) Why Has the Number of International Non-Governmental Organizations Exploded since 1960?,Cliodynamics, 1, (1).
  • Eugene Fram & Vicki Brown, How Using the Corporate Model Makes a Nonprofit Board More Effective & Efficient - Third Edition (2011), Amazon Books, Create Space Books.

The de facto reference resource for information and statistics on International NGOs (INGOs) and other transnational organisational forms is the Yearbook of International Organizations, produced by the Union of International Associations.

  • David Lewis and Nazneen Kanji (2009): Non-Governmental Organizations and Development. New York: Routledge.
  • Issa G. Shivji (2007): Silence in NGO Discourse: The Role and Future of NGOs in Africa. Nairobi: Fahamu.
  • Jens Steffek and Kristina Hahn (2010): Evaluating Transnational NGOs: Legitimacy, Accountability, Representation. New York: Palgrave, Macmillan.

External links[edit]

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