THE HIMALAYAN TALK: INDIAN GOVERNMENT FOOD SECURITY PROGRAM RISKIER

http://youtu.be/NrcmNEjaN8c The government of India has announced food security program ahead of elections in 2014. We discussed the issue with Palash Biswas in Kolkata today. http://youtu.be/NrcmNEjaN8c Ahead of Elections, India's Cabinet Approves Food Security Program ______________________________________________________ By JIM YARDLEY http://india.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/07/04/indias-cabinet-passes-food-security-law/

THE HIMALAYAN TALK: PALASH BISWAS CRITICAL OF BAMCEF LEADERSHIP

[Palash Biswas, one of the BAMCEF leaders and editors for Indian Express spoke to us from Kolkata today and criticized BAMCEF leadership in New Delhi, which according to him, is messing up with Nepalese indigenous peoples also. He also flayed MP Jay Narayan Prasad Nishad, who recently offered a Puja in his New Delhi home for Narendra Modi's victory in 2014.]

THE HIMALAYAN DISASTER: TRANSNATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT MECHANISM A MUST

We talked with Palash Biswas, an editor for Indian Express in Kolkata today also. He urged that there must a transnational disaster management mechanism to avert such scale disaster in the Himalayas. http://youtu.be/7IzWUpRECJM

THE HIMALAYAN TALK: PALASH BISWAS LASHES OUT KATHMANDU INT'L 'MULVASI' CONFERENCE

अहिले भर्खर कोलकता भारतमा हामीले पलाश विश्वाससंग काठमाडौँमा आज भै रहेको अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय मूलवासी सम्मेलनको बारेमा कुराकानी गर्यौ । उहाले भन्नु भयो सो सम्मेलन 'नेपालको आदिवासी जनजातिहरुको आन्दोलनलाई कम्जोर बनाउने षडयन्त्र हो।' http://youtu.be/j8GXlmSBbbk

THE HIMALAYAN TALK: PALASH BISWAS LASHES OUT KATHMANDU INT'L 'MULVASI' CONFERENCE

अहिले भर्खर कोलकता भारतमा हामीले पलाश विश्वाससंग काठमाडौँमा आज भै रहेको अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय मूलवासी सम्मेलनको बारेमा कुराकानी गर्यौ । उहाले भन्नु भयो सो सम्मेलन 'नेपालको आदिवासी जनजातिहरुको आन्दोलनलाई कम्जोर बनाउने षडयन्त्र हो।' http://youtu.be/j8GXlmSBbbk

THE HIMALAYAN TALK: PALASH BISWAS BLASTS INDIANS THAT CLAIM BUDDHA WAS BORN IN INDIA

THE HIMALAYAN VOICE: PALASH BISWAS DISCUSSES RAM MANDIR

Published on 10 Apr 2013 Palash Biswas spoke to us from Kolkota and shared his views on Visho Hindu Parashid's programme from tomorrow ( April 11, 2013) to build Ram Mandir in disputed Ayodhya. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=77cZuBunAGk

THE HIMALAYAN TALK: PALSH BISWAS FLAYS SOUTH ASIAN GOVERNM

Palash Biswas, lashed out those 1% people in the government in New Delhi for failure of delivery and creating hosts of problems everywhere in South Asia. http://youtu.be/lD2_V7CB2Is

Palash Biswas on BAMCEF UNIFICATION!

THE HIMALAYAN TALK: PALASH BISWAS ON NEPALI SENTIMENT, GORKHALAND, KUMAON AND GARHWAL ETC.and BAMCEF UNIFICATION! Published on Mar 19, 2013 The Himalayan Voice Cambridge, Massachusetts United States of America

BAMCEF UNIFICATION CONFERENCE 7

Published on 10 Mar 2013 ALL INDIA BAMCEF UNIFICATION CONFERENCE HELD AT Dr.B. R. AMBEDKAR BHAVAN,DADAR,MUMBAI ON 2ND AND 3RD MARCH 2013. Mr.PALASH BISWAS (JOURNALIST -KOLKATA) DELIVERING HER SPEECH. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oLL-n6MrcoM http://youtu.be/oLL-n6MrcoM

Imminent Massive earthquake in the Himalayas

THE HIMALAYAN TALK: PALASH BISWAS CRITICIZES GOVT FOR WORLD`S BIGGEST BLACK OUT

THE HIMALAYAN TALK: PALASH BISWAS CRITICIZES GOVT FOR WORLD`S BIGGEST BLACK OUT

THE HIMALAYAN TALK: PALASH BISWAS TALKS AGAINST CASTEIST HEGEMONY IN SOUTH ASIA

Palash Biswas on Citizenship Amendment Act

Mr. PALASH BISWAS DELIVERING SPEECH AT BAMCEF PROGRAM AT NAGPUR ON 17 & 18 SEPTEMBER 2003 Sub:- CITIZENSHIP AMENDMENT ACT 2003 http://youtu.be/zGDfsLzxTXo

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Monday, January 4, 2016

#চুয়াড় বিদ্রোহ@Chuar Rebellion: Midnapur Bankura legacy of freedom and Resistance! Palash Biswas

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G9UslKekhx8&feature=youtu.be


#চুয়াড় বিদ্রোহ@Chuar Rebellion: Midnapur Bankura legacy of freedom and Resistance!

Palash Biswas

CPI-M leader Binoy Konar in Kolkata said: "We will not sit silent in Nandigram. We will hit back if they adopt violent means." The battle lines were thus drawn in Nandigram.


Millions of farmers in Latin America, Africa and south Asia are, at present, direct victims of the wondrous regime set up by the WTO and world order sustained by governments worldwide led by ruling hegemony of ruling dynasties in desguise of democracy and their agenicies all on name of growth,development and humanitarian cause and projected mass movement . With the gradual dismantling of quantitative restrictions and tariff barriers, the peasantry in the poorer countries is facing rack and ruin. A whole range of farm commodities can be offered for trading by the technologically advanced Western countries at prices that would not cover farmers' costs in the poor continents. One reason is the neo-colonial edict: some are more equal than others; subsidies are out for farmers in India, Pakistan or Bangladesh, but not for those in the US, or in France.


But agrarian Midnapur and Jangal Mahal in Bengal have a different legacy of resistance to reject the Global Order,indiscriminate industrializaion,urbanisation and infrastructure.I am just drawing your attention to this humanscape of continuous resistance inherent.


I returned from the Coastal Bengal on Friday afternoon to disturb you only.Initially we planned to see the Bay of Bengal waves on Digh Coast as Sabita Babu was eager to see it which we did not see for last 25 years in Bengal.But it turned to be a visit to the Midnapur legacy of freedom and resistance from Tamralipta,Chuar revolt,Hijli concentration camp and Nandigram united!


We spent a full day and full night in IIT campus in Kharagpur with Anand and Rama Teltumbde.It was a rare opportunity to meet the only grand daughter of Baba Saheb Bhim Rao Ambedkar.Ramaji is named after her grandma.But the couple opt for objective study of society and time.


We are thankful to Ramaji that she hosted us so superbly and cooked delicious dishes for us as the hostess shared her time so generously and we all know her excellence and sharpness not to mention Anand.


Anand played the guide role to show us the Hijli barracks and the postmodern museum with latest projects on display.As usal we discussed each and every issue and we would share all the shades of discourse and discussion with proper reference and context.


Midnapur is quite different from rest of Bengal,rest of India.So the tribal India,which it makes with Jharkhand,dandakarnya,Orrissa,MP,Maharashtra and Andhra are quite different in culture,psyche,linguistics and history.We have brute apathy against them!We may include tribal Gujarat and rajasthan along with UP and Bihar in this list.Then entire North East.


For Example as Warren Hastings failed to quell the Chuar uprisings. The district administrator to Bankura wrote in his diary in 1787 that the Chuar revolt was so widespread and fierce that temporarily, the Company's rule had vanished from the district of Bankura. Finally in 1799 the Governor General, Wellesley crushed these uprisings by a pincer attack. An area near Salboni in Midnapore district, in whose mango grove many rebels were hung from trees by the British, is still known by local villagers as "the heath of the hanging upland", Phansi Dangar Math. Some years later under the leadership of Jagabandhu the paymaster or Bakshi (of the infantry of the Puri Raja), there was the well-known widespread Paik or retainer uprising in Orissa. In 1793 the Governor General Cornwallis initiated in the entire Presidency of Bengal a new form of Permanent Settlement of revenue to loyal landlords. This led to misfortunes for the toiling peasantry: in time they would protest against this as well.

First Chuar Rebellion (1767.)


But the world owes much to rebels who would dare to argue in the face of the pontiff and insist that he is not infallible.


-Babasaheb Ambedkar


In the fight for Swaraj you fight with the whole nation on your side...[but to annihilate the caste], you have to fight against the whole nation—and that too, your own. But it is more important than Swaraj. There is no use having Swaraj, if you cannot defend it. More important than the question of defending Swaraj is the question of defending the Hindus under the Swaraj. In my opinion, it is only when Hindu Society becomes a casteless society that it can hope to have strength enough to defend itself. Without such internal strength, Swaraj for Hindus may turn out to be only a step towards slavery. Good-bye, and good wishes for your success.


-B.R. Ambedkar


চুয়াড় বিদ্রোহ (Chuar movements):- চুয়াড় বা চোয়াড়রা ছিল বাংলার মেদিনীপুর জেলার জঙ্গলমহলের অধিবাসী । চাষবাস ও পশুশিকারের সঙ্গে জড়িত থাকলেও যুদ্ধবিগ্রহ ছিল তাদের প্রধান পেশা । সাধারণত চুয়াড় সম্প্রদায়ের মানুষেরা মেদিনীপুর, বাঁকুড়া, সিংভূম, মানভূম ও ধলভূমের স্থানীয় জমিদারদের অধীনে রক্ষী বা পাইকের কাজ করত । পাইকের কাজ করার বিনিময়ে তারা যে জমি ভোগ করত তা পাইকান জমি নামে পরিচিত ছিল । বাংলায় কোম্পানি শাসন প্রতিষ্ঠার পর কোম্পানির কর্তৃপক্ষ এই অঞ্চলের জমিদারদের ওপর অত্যন্ত চড়া হারে ভূমিরাজস্ব ধার্য করে । এর বিরুদ্ধে এই অঞ্চলের জমিদাররা বিদ্রোহ ঘোষণা করলে তাঁদের পাইক চুয়াড়গণও সমগ্র জঙ্গলমহল জুড়ে বিদ্রোহ করে । এই বিদ্রোহ প্রায় ৩০ বছর ধরে ১৭৬৯ খ্রিস্টাব্দ থেকে ১৭৯৯ খ্রিস্টাব্দ পর্যন্ত চলে । ১৭৬৯ খ্রিস্টাব্দে ঘাটশিলায় ধলভূমের রাজা জগন্নাথ সিংহ প্রথম ধল বিদ্রোহ ঘোষণা করেন । চুয়াড়রাও এই বিদ্রোহে সক্রিয় ভাবে অংশ নিলেও শেষ পর্যন্ত ইংরেজ সেনাবাহিনীর কাছে পরাজিত হয় । অবশেষে কোম্পানি জগন্নাথ সিংহের ভ্রাতুষ্পুত্রকে জমিদারি ফিরিয়ে দেয় । অন্যদিকে ১৭৭১ খ্রিস্টাব্দে ধাদকার শ্যামগঞ্জন -এর নেতৃত্বে চুয়াড়রা বিদ্রোহ ঘোষণা করেও ব্যর্থ হয় । ১৭৯৮-৯৯ খ্রিস্টাব্দে দুর্বল সিংহের নেতৃত্বে চুয়াড় বিদ্রোহ সবচেয়ে ব্যাপক আকার ধারণ করেছিল, কিন্তু কোম্পানির সেনাদল নির্মম অত্যাচার করে এই বিদ্রোহ দমন করে ।


প্রোটো-ইন্দো-আর্যরা(উইকিপিডিয়া, মুক্ত বিশ্বকোষ থেকে) এখানে এলে ধীরে ধীরে এই অঞ্চলের আর্যীকরণ শুরু হয়। প্রথম দিকে গুণ ও কর্মের বিভাগ অনুযায়ী এই আর্যীকরণ শুরু হয়। এর ফলে এই অঞ্চলে বর্ণভিত্তিক সমাজব্যবস্থা গড়ে ওঠে। এই সমাজব্যবস্থা গড়ে ওঠার পিছনে এই অঞ্চলের পুরনো সমাজব্যবস্থারও কিছু অবদান ছিল। তবে এই আর্যীকরণ সহজে হয়নি। কয়েক শতাব্দী ধরে সংঘর্ষ ও সহযোগিতা উভয় পরিবেশেই ধীরে ধীরে আর্যীকরণের কাজ সম্পাদিত হয়েছে।[৩]

ঐতরেয় আরণ্যক গ্রন্থে (আনুমানিক খ্রিষ্টপূর্ব সপ্তম শতাব্দী) এই অঞ্চলের অধিবাসীদের অসুর নামে অভিহিত করা হয়েছে। আজও এই জেলার বহু গ্রামের নামঅসুর-দের নামের সঙ্গে যুক্ত। বৌধায়ন ধর্মসূত্র গ্রন্থে (আনুমানিক খ্রিষ্টপূর্ব পঞ্চম-ষষ্ঠ শতাব্দী) বলা হয়েছে, অঙ্গ ও মধ্যদেশে আংশিক আর্যীকরণ সম্পন্ন হলেও,পুণ্ড্র, বঙ্গকলিঙ্গ কেবল উত্তর ভারতের আর্য জাতির সংস্পর্শেই এসেছে।[৫]

প্রাকৃতসংস্কৃত ভাষায় লেখা শুশুনিয়া লেখ থেকে জানা যায়, খ্রিষ্টীয় চতুর্থ শতাব্দীতে রাজা চন্দ্রবর্মণের পুত্র সিংহবর্মণ পুষ্করণের (অধুনা পোখরনা) রাজা ছিলেন। প্রায় সমগ্র রাঢ় (দক্ষিণ-পশ্চিম বাংলা) তাঁর শাসনাধীনে ছিল।[৬][৭] এলাহাবাদ প্রশস্তি থেকে জানা যায়, সমুদ্রগুপ্ত চন্দ্রবর্মণকে পরাজিত করে এই অঞ্চলটিগুপ্ত সাম্রাজ্যের অধিভুক্ত করেছিলেন।[৮] বহু বছর এই অঞ্চল বর্ধমানভুক্তিদণ্ডভুক্তির অধীনস্থ ছিল।[৯]

আচারাঙ্গ সূত্র নামক প্রাচীন জৈন গ্রন্থে (আনুমানিক খ্রিষ্টীয় চতুর্থ শতাব্দী) সুহ্ম ও লাঢ়া (রাঢ়?) অঞ্চলের উল্লেখ রয়েছে। উক্ত গ্রন্থে এই অঞ্চলদুটিকে বর্বর জাতি অধ্যুষিত বলা হয়েছে। অনেক ঐতিহাসিকের মতে, বাংলায় আর্যীকরণের কাজ প্রথমে উত্তর ও পূর্ব বাংলায় হয়, এবং তার পরে হয় পশ্চিম বাংলায়। এই সময়েই বাংলায় জৈন ও বৌদ্ধ ধর্ম প্রসার লাভ করে। খ্রিষ্টীয় ষষ্ঠ শতাব্দী থেকে বাংলায় আর্য ধর্মের প্রসারের একাধিক নিদর্শন পাওয়া গেছে।[৫]

ব্রিটিশ প্রশাসনের সূচনাকাল[সম্পাদনা]

১৭৬০ সালে বর্ধমান চাকলার অবশিষ্টাংশের সঙ্গে বিষ্ণুপুরও ব্রিটিশ শাসনাধীনে আসে। মারাঠা অত্যাচারের পর ছিয়াত্তরের মন্বন্তর এখানকার অর্থনীতিকে ধ্বংসের মুখে ঠেলে দেয়। জনসংখ্যা হ্রাস পায়, শস্য উৎপাদন কমে যায় এবং আইন শৃঙ্খলার অবনতি ঘটে। অতীতের শক্তিশালী রাজ্য বিষ্ণুপুর কেবল এক জমিদারিতে রূপান্তরিত হয়। ১৭৮৭ সালে, বিষ্ণুপুর বীরভূমের অন্তর্ভুক্ত হয়। সিউড়িকে সদর করে এটি একটি পৃথক জেলার মর্যাদা লাভ করে। বিষ্ণুপুর অঞ্চলে বিদ্রোহের পরিস্থিতি সৃষ্টি হয়। এই বিদ্রোহ চুয়াড় বিদ্রোহ নামে পরিচিত। ১৭৯৩ সালে বাঁকুড়া পৃথক জেলা হিসেবে আত্মপ্রকাশ করে এবং বর্ধমান বিভাগের অন্তর্ভুক্ত হয়।[১০]

চুয়াড় বিদ্রোহ[সম্পাদনা]

অষ্টাদশ শতাব্দীর শেষ ভাগে বাঁকুড়া জেলার রায়পুরে চুয়াড় বিদ্রোহের সূত্রপাত ঘটে। এই বিদ্রোহের নেতা ছিলেন রায়পুরের পূর্বতন জমিদার দুর্জন সিংহ। প্রায় ১,৫০০ অনুগামী নিয়ে তিনি প্রবল প্রতিরোধ গড়ে তোলেন। পুলিশ এই বিদ্রোহ দমনে ব্যর্থ হয়। এই সময় বাঁকুড়া জঙ্গল মহলের অন্তর্গত ছিল। চুয়াড় বিদ্রোহ চলাকালীনই বাঁকুড়া ইস্ট ইন্ডিয়া কোম্পানির বাণিজ্যিক উন্নতির পথে বিশেষ গুরুত্বপূর্ণ হয়ে ওঠে। সোনামুখীতে কোম্পানির কুঠি গড়ে ওঠে। এই কুঠির ৩১টি অধীনস্থ কুঠি ছিল, যার একটি পাত্রসায়র এবং অপর দুটি বীরভূমের সুরুলইলামবাজারে গড়ে ওঠে। ১৮৩২ সালে চুয়াড় বিদ্রোহের ফলস্রুতিতে ১৮৩৩ সালে জঙ্গল মহল ভেঙে দেওয়া হয়। বিষ্ণুপুর বর্ধমানের সঙ্গে যুক্ত হয়। জেলার অধিকাংশ অংশ মানভূমের অঙ্গীভূত হয়। এই অঞ্চলটি সেই সময় নর্থ-ওয়েস্ট ফ্রন্টিয়ার এজেন্সি নামে পরিচিত ছিল। ১৮৭২ সালে, সোনামুখী, ইন্দাস, কোতুলপুর, শেরগড় ও সেনপাহাড়ি বর্ধমানের অন্তর্ভুক্ত হয়।[১০]


We are imprisoned in caste system and religious identities and are subjected to infinite displacement,infinite persecution and infinite repression in  a military state of Salwa Judum and AFSPA ruled by the marketing agents of thousands and thousands East India Companies.


But indigenous aborigin agrarian communities were never enslaved contrary to the bahujan ideology of Hajaro sal ki gulami!


Agrarian,  indigenous and aborigin communities always revolted to make this earth better for harvesting,better for production, better for the toiling masses and they sacrificed.


Yes,it is the Great Indian saga of freedom and resistance and at the same time it is the legacy of Midnapur!Bankura and Jangl Mhala and Central India along with entire Northeast.


In Midnapore, South Bihar, Chotanagpur, Orissa etc. there were repeated Chuar rebellions. The Jungle Mahal of Midnapore, the Hoj of Singbhum, Kol and Munda in Chotanagpur, Bhumij of Manbhum, the Santhals of Rajmahal, the Khasias of Assam, the Khonds of Orissa gave no rest to the government by their repeated rebellions. Under the leadership of Jagannath Dhal of Dhalbhum, the Chuars rebelled, and Jagannath Dhal was joined by the kings of Kailapal,.

Dolka, Barbhum etc. in 1768. The zamindars of Nawabganj and Jharia stopped payment of revenue to the English. In 1832 the Hoj of Singbhum rebelled under the leadership of Ganganarayan, attacked the government office and occupied Barbhum for some time. The Adibasis of Chotanagpur, Singbhum, Malbhum rebelled at that time. The Hoj and the Munda communities also joined in the rebellion. At about the same time the government transferred lands of the Adibasis to the Sikhs and the Muslims. The Adibasis of Ranchi, Singbhum, Hfizaribag, Palamau, and parts of Manbhum rebelled against the British in protest.



I visited Midnapur inhibited by the people of different linguistics and it has always been  a loud scenario with the enriched legacy of freedom and resistance.


The latest resistance in and around Nandigram is now history in itself.Tamralipta dates back in ancient India.


Hijli concentration barracks have been transformed in to IIT Kharagpur representing not only Midnapur East and West but entire Jangal Mahal in Bengal,Jharkhand,Orrissa and even Chhatisgargh.


For example,the Santhals had migrated from Hazaribag and Manbhum to the hilly tracts of Rajmahal. But taking advantage of their poverty and simplicity the money lenders started exploiting them. The reve­nue collectors, railway employees were carrying on repression on them and even violated the honour of their women. For these reasons they rebelled against the government officers, police, money-lenders etc.

They became convinced that unless they could wrest their lands from the government there would be no end of their sufferings. In 1855 the Santhals rebelled and began to fight against the army with bows and arrows and naturally were defeated. But their rebellion was partially successful. The Santhal-inhabited areas were formed into a separate Pargana called Santhal Pargana and a special type of administration was introduced there.

Orissa came under the British control in 1803 but the local rulers did not accept the British rule without opposition. In 1804 the king of Khurda revolted against the British but the revolt was suppressed with a heavy hand by the government. But within a short time the Paiks of Khurda attacked the revenue collectors and the police and set the government treasury ablaze. In 1817 after prolonged repressive measures the government restored control over Khurda. Puri still continued to disobey the government. It was in 1825 that the revolt in Khurda was finally suppressed and the king of Khurda pen­sioned off and allowed to live in Cuttack.


I would be talking on every point and would deal with every phase.The religious polarization is all about the ethnic cleansing of this ninety nine percent by the ONE percent rulers and we dare not to raise our voice of dissent.But Midnapur had been always in resistance mode!


We have to stand rock solid if we wish to change the scenario of exclusion,ethnic cleansing,inherent inequality and injustice justified by Identity Civil War!


The Scnario:Apart from the RED and Blue majority masses in India,the offspring of Zamindari and indiscriminate urbanization killing the indigenous production system and Indian Economy,the ONE Percent ruling class has captured all resources and assets as the ninety percent masses are deprived of right to knowledge,right to arms,right to worship and right to property and the women are treated as SEX  Slaves and the children of these masses are treated as Bonded.


I have spoken on this turnaround in my latest videos how the aesthetics became so urban and how Bengali intelligentsia had not supported the BHASHA Biplab in  nineties,first struggle of freedom in 1857,Indigo Revolt,Santhal and Bheel and Munda insurrections.Not enough, the dubbed the original uprising right in 1750 to 1760 as Chuar Rebellion as a criminal offence and the original uprising of Indian peasantry led by Hindu,Muslim and Tribal leaders as sanyasi Vidroh.


Here I begin the Saga Freedom with the First Ever Resistance against East India Company ,the Chuar Rebellion,CHUAR VODROH!The people belonging to a different humanscape, different linguistics and different aesthetics!


Chuar rebellion


Chuar rebellion[edit]

Towards the end of the 18th century certain portions of the district around Raipur was affected by the Chuar rebellion. The leader of the rebels was Durjan Singh, a former zamindar of Raipur. He had a following of about 1,500 men and created havoc in certain areas. The police force was simply not in a position to control the situation. At the time Bankura appears to have been part of Jungle Mahals. While the Chuars continued to be a menace, Bankura played an important role in the commercial department of East India Company.Sonamukhi had a head factory with 31 subordinate ones, including one at Patrasayar, as well as at Surul and Ilambazar in Birbhum. The disturbances of the Chuars in 1832 in the western part of the district lead to the disbandment of the Jungle Mahals in 1833. While Bishnupur was transferred to Burdwan, most of the district formed a part of Manbhum and what was known as North-west Frontier Agency. In 1872, the parganas of Sonamukhi, Indas, Kotulpur, Shergarh and Senpahari were transferred to Burdwan.[10]

Wiki pages on Midnapur and Bankura mentioned only.

INSURRECTION:The act or an instance of open revolt against civil authority or a constituted government.

Santhal Revolt is defined an Insurrection! Insurgency is synonymous to Insurrection. If Santhal revolt is an act of Insurrection, what do you mean by Insurgency in Modern India?

All nationality movements in India have been always defined as Insurgency.

In accordance with this definition the Resistance of peasants in Nandigram may well be defined as Insurrection!




Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose on the way to Midnapore

Arindam Bhowmik's photo.




Oldest revolt:Chuar Rebellion Area: Midnapore, Bakura districts of West Bengal Important Leader : Durjan Singh The Famine, enhanced taxes, oppressive demands and economic distress cuased the revolt in the Midnapore and Bakura district of West Bengal for several times. In 1799-1800, there was a revolt under Durjan Singh, who was a former Zamindar. His 1500 followers created a havoc. The rebellion was suppressed with utmost cruelty.


Towards the end of the 18th century certain portions of the district around Raipur was affected by the Chuar rebellion. The leader of the rebels was Durjan Singha, a former zamindar of Raipur. He had a following of about 1,500 men and created havoc in certain areas. The police force was simply not in a position to control the situation. At the time Bankura appears to have been part of Jungle Mahals. While the Chuars continued to be a menace, Bankura played an important role in the commercial department of East India Company. Sonamukhi had a head factory with 31 subordinate ones, including one atPatrasayar, as well as at Surul and Ilambazar in Birbhum. The disturbances of the Chuars in 1832 in the western part of the district lead to the disbandment of the Jungle Mahals in 1833. While Bishnupur was transferred to Burdwan, most of the district formed a part of Manbhum and what was known as North-west Frontier Agency. In 1872, the parganas of Sonamukhi, Indas, Kotulpur, Shergarh and Senpahari were transferred to Burdwan


The Chuars lived in Jungle Mahal of north-western Midnapur. Basically farmers and hunters, they also worked as paiks under local zamindars. They received tax-free land instead of salaries.


When the Company imposed huge tax burden on zamindars, they revolted, and the paiks and Chuars joined in. The uprising continued for around three decades from 1768-69 to 1799.

  • In 1768, Jagannath Singh, the zamindar of Ghatshila or the king of Dhalbhum, first went up in arms, backed by local zamindars, and 50,000 Chuars. The frightened government returned the zamindari to Jagannath.

  • In 1771, Chuars rose again, led by Dhadkar Shyamganjan. They failed this time.

  • The third phase of rebellion was in 1783-84 and 1789-90.

  • The most significant uprising was the Durjol Singh led revolt in 1789-90 which was brutally put down by the govern­ment. Prof. Narahari Kabiraj says, "The revolt covered Midnapur, Bankura, Birbhum and Dhalbhum. It was a spontaneous and extensive uprising of poor and lower classes. Peasants were the pillars of this movement."



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