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अहिले भर्खर कोलकता भारतमा हामीले पलाश विश्वाससंग काठमाडौँमा आज भै रहेको अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय मूलवासी सम्मेलनको बारेमा कुराकानी गर्यौ । उहाले भन्नु भयो सो सम्मेलन 'नेपालको आदिवासी जनजातिहरुको आन्दोलनलाई कम्जोर बनाउने षडयन्त्र हो।' http://youtu.be/j8GXlmSBbbk

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Friday, November 11, 2011

Decoding Indus Scipt Susa cylinder seal: Susa-Indus interaction areas

 

http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.com/2011/11/decoding-indus-scipt-susa-cylinder-seal.html


8.11.11

Decoding Indus Scipt Susa cylinder seal: Susa-Indus interaction areas

Background

Fish glyph on a Susa pot has been decoded as Indus script. Seehttp://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.com/2011/11/decoding-fish-and-ligatured-fish-glyphs.html That the pot came from Meluhha has been further substantiated by analysing Susa-Indus interaction areas. 

In particular, there is a bronze sculpture excavated in Susa, called Sit Shamshi. "Sunrise (ceremony)" This large piece of bronze shows a religious ceremony. In the center are two men in ritual nudity surrounded by religious furnishings - vases for libations, perhaps bread for offerings, steles - in a stylized urban landscape: a multi-tiered tower, a temple on a terrace, a sacred wood. In the Middle-Elamite period (15th-12th century BC), Elamite craftsmen acquired new metallurgical techniques for the execution of large monuments, statues and reliefs. http://tinyurl.com/coobwur

I suggest that this religious ceremony in front of a ziggurat is a sandhyavandanam (morning prayer to the sun) by the metallurgist artisan from Meluhha. The prayer is a veneration of the ancestors whose remains are interned in the ziggurat/stupa. Further researches have to be done on the continuance of similar traditions in the metal smelting areas on Ganga valley, sites such as Lohardiwa, Malhar, and Raja-nal-ki-tila (where Rakesh Tiwari has found evidence of iron smelting in ca. 18th century BCE).

Mohenjodaro stupa


The ziggurat model is also comparable to the evidence of the ziggurat in Mohenjodaro and a stupa at Chaneti in Haryana. http://www.thebuddhistforum.com/buddhist-art/monuments/stupas/148-buddhist-stupa-at-chaneti.html


The discovery in Susa, of a cylinder seal (now in Louvre museum) with Indus script inscription (shown below) is a landmark event in historical studies.

A seal made in Meluhha. The language of the inscription on this cylinder seal found in Susa reveals that it was made in Harappa in the Indus Valley. In antiquity, the valley was known as Meluhha. The seal's chalky white appearance is due to the fired steatite it is made of. Craftsmen in the Indus Valley made most of their seals from this material, although square shapes were usually favored. The animal carving is similar to those found in Harappan works. The animal is a bull with no hump on its shoulders, or possibly a short-horned gaur. Its head is lowered and the body unusually elongated. As was often the case, the animal is depicted eating from a woven wicker manger. 

http://tinyurl.com/bq3xul5

Indus script inscription on Susa cylinder seal

Rebus readings of mleccha (meluhha)

Arrowhead, smelter furnace, native metla, black metal: இறும்பி iṟumpi, n. < எறும்பு. [K. iṟumpu, M. iṟumbu.] Ant; எறும்பு. (யாழ். அக.) இரும்பு irumpu, n. < இரு-மை. cf. செம்பு for செம்மை. [T. inumu, M. irumbu.] 1. Iron, literally, the black metal; கரும்பொன். (தேவா. 209, 3.) 2. Instrument, weapon: ஆயுதம். இரும்பு மேல் விடாது நிற்பார் (சீவக. 782). śanku 'twelve-fingers' measure' (Skt.); Rebus: 'arrowhead' (Skt.) kuṭi 'water carrier' (Te.) Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṛī f. 'fireplace' (H.); krvṛi f. 'granary (WPah.); kuṛī, kuṛo house, building'(Ku.)(CDIAL 3232) aḍar 'harrow'; அடர்¹-. 1. To press down; அமுக்குதல். திருவிரலா லடர்த் தான் வல்லரக்கனையும் (தேவா. 509, 8) Rebus: aduru = gan.iyinda tegadu karagade iruva aduru = ore taken from the mine and not subjected to melting in a furnace (Ka.) dula 'pair' (Kashmiri); rebus: dul 'casting' (Santali). The following maps were reported in http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.com/2011/11/decoding-fish-and-ligatured-fish-glyphs.html wherein the fish glyph on the pot of Susa was decoded as aya 'fish'; rebus: aya 'metal' (Gujarati). This monograph researches the Susa-Indus interaction areas Susa-Indus interaction areas Location of Susa, in relation to Tal-i Iblis, Shahr-i-Sokhta and Mundigak provides a framework for analyzing the interaction areas of Indus civilization. Tal-i Iblis is a historic site which produced copper artefacts dated to ca. 6500 BCE. Artifacts found: metallurgical crucible fragments, pieces of copper ore, small copper objects and some slag…With dates falling unequivocally within the 6th millennium BCE, these laboratory analytical and experimental results make Tal-i-iblis the earliest site in Western Asia and in the world whose archaeological remains indicate the development of a copper extractive metallurgy. An MIT report examines a small corpus of artifacts from Tal-i Iblis, Iran dating to the mid-6th millennium BCE. When excavated in the late 1960s, these artifacts were presumed to be evidence of an early copper smelting technology on the Iranian Plateau, and they were delivered to MIT for further analysis. (2004) http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/33759 There was trade in turbinella pyrum between Indus civilization and Mesopoamia (Susa); trade exchange with Oman and Indus valley evidenced and discussed inhttp://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/paleo_0153-9345_1984_num_10_1_4350 Turbinella pyrum is a signature tune of the civilization. A wide bangle of turbinella pyrum was evidence in the burial of a woman in Mehergarh dated to ca. 6500 BCE. Role of shell in Mesopotamia: evidence for trade exchange with Oman and Indus valley - T.R. Gensheimer (1984)http://www.docstoc.com/docs/102137299/Role-of-shell-in-Mesopotamia-evidence-for-trade-exchange-with-Oman-and-Indus-valley---TR-Gensheimer-(1984)Role of shell in Mesopotamia: evidence for trade exchange with Oman and Indus valley - T.R. Gensheimer (1984)
Decoding Indus Scipt Susa cylinder seal Susa-Indus interaction areas


http://www.archive.org/download/mmoires01franuoft/mmoires01franuoft.pdf  Jacques de Morgan, Fouilles à Suse en 1897-1898 et 1898-1899, Mission archéologique en Iran, Mémoires I, 1990

http://www.archive.org/download/mmoires07franuoft/mmoires07franuoft.pdf Jacques de Morgan, Fouilles à Suse en 1899-1902, Mission archéologique en Iran, Mémoires VII, 1905
-- 
Kalyanaraman

Member, Action Committee Against Corruption in India (ACACI)

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